Published on March 3, 2014
March is Pet Wellness Month 5% Off Routine Physical Exams and Vaccinations!
Why does my pet need a wellness exam every 6 months? • To ensure your pet is healthy • To catch problems before they become serious • To keep you and your pet informed & up to date on the current recommendations for vaccines and medications as recommended by the AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association). • To maintain a current doctor/patient relationship If I’m going to the vet, you’re going with me!
What does an exam cover? During the exam the doctor is checking your pet from nose to tail! There are so many parts to a physical you may not notice happening while you are right there with your pet! While the doctor is doing her physical, she is most likely also asking you a series of questions. Answer these truthfully! We are a team, and we have to be truthful with each other to make sure your pet gets the best care! These next few slides cover what happens during a physical. While it looks like the doctor is just being friendly, she is doing her exam! She is looking at this dog’s eyes, smelling her breath and palpating her lymph nodes. Irregularities in any of these could be a sign of a serious problem!
I’m not listening! La, La, La… Ears • During an ear exam the doctor looks deep inside your pet’s ears to make sure they are clean and healthy! • Sometimes they find debris, as pictured below. This can be a sign of infection! The doctor will run an ear cytology to see what is wrong and to make sure the right medication is prescribed!
“Eye” can’t watch! Eyes • Ophthalmic exams are very important! Diseases and injuries to eyes that go untreated can lead to loss of vision or the eye! Common Eye Problems: Eye problems are always an emergency! • • • • • • • • • • Corneal injuries Glaucoma Cataracts Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS or “dry eye”) Entropion Herpes Virus Cherry Eye Retinal Detachment Ocular Discharge Blindness
Mouth Oral exams are important too! We look for masses, defects, tooth problems and foreign objects! It’s not “just” bad breath! Bad breath can be a sign of these problems: Dental disease can lead to bone, heart, renal & liver disease We recommend dental cleanings every 6-12 months! • • • • Dental Disease Renal issues Foreign body Masses/Cancer
This makes me itch! Skin / Coat What we are looking for: • • • • • • • Parasites like fleas, ticks, lice & mites Skin infections Skin Allergies Hair Loss Dull coat Flaky skin Ringworm Ringworm What does it mean? • • • • External parasites can cause anemia, blood borne diseases, skin infections and discomfort Hair loss and poor coat can be a sign of dietary problems or something more serious Skin problems aren’t always an allergic response to something in the environment. Sometimes it’s to your pet’s food! Ringworm & Sarcoptic mange are contagious to animals and people! Skin Infection
Sounds purrrfect to me doc! Heart & Lungs What we may find: • Heart Murmurs: some pets have very mild murmurs and some are significant! We monitor them closely. Sometimes they resolve or worsen. • Pets can get asthma just like you and me! • Coughing can be a sign of heart disease, heartworms, a virus or pneumonia. What we may do to further diagnosis the problem: • • • • EKG Chest X-Ray Radiographs EKG Ultrasound Bloodwork
Musculoskeletal What we are looking for signs of: • • • • • • Arthritis Degenerative Joint Disease Cruciate Ligament Tear Hip Dysplasia Lameness Pain What we may recommend: • • • • • Radiographs Laser therapy Oral Supplements Injectable Supplements Pain Medications • Pets having severe pain associated with lameness, or lameness that lasts more than 2448 hours should be seen by a vet. • NEVER give your pet human pain medications. Most are very dangerous to your pet!
Abdomen What we are looking for: • Pain • Distention • Masses / Tumors What we may recommend: • • • • Bloodwork Radiographs Ultrasound Surgery I think I ate too much! Abdominal pain and/or distention can be a sign of a very serious problem. Pancreatitis, bloat, foreign body, tumors, constipation and dietary indiscretion can all cause abdominal pain.
External Parasites During your pet’s exam the doctor will look for these parasites and discuss which prevention and treatments are best for your pet! Not all products work on every pet, and NOTHING covers EVERYTHING! • • • • • Fleas & Ticks Lice Skin Mites Ear Mites Red Bugs (Chiggers)
Internal Parasites During your visit the doctor may recommend a fecal (stool parasite screening). This helps us identify if & what parasites your pet may have so we can treat them appropriately. Parasites can be deadly to your pet and some parasites can be transmitted to people. What we are testing for: • • • • • Hookworms Roundworms Whipworms Tapeworms Coccida
Heartworm Disease • • • • Is spread by mosquitoes – YOUR INDOOR PET IS AT RISK! It is NEVER cold enough here to stop prevention It is completely preventable It can be treated in dogs, but is VERY expensive & hard on your pet. Cats CANNOT be treated once they get heartworms! • Affects dogs & cats • We can test for it here and have the results in 8 minuets
Vaccines Core Vaccines: • • Distemper/Parvo & Rabies – Given every 1 to 3 years depending on type of vaccine & state laws Bordetella – Given every 6 months Vaccines prevent your pet from getting sick from deadly viruses. Prevention is always cheaper than trying to treat your pet once they catch something! Your vet will help design a plan that is right for your pet. Vaccines given based on exposure: • • • • Lepto – Given yearly Lyme – Given yearly H3N8 (Influenza) – Given every 6 months Rattlesnake – Given every 6 months
• • Distemper, Leukemia & Rabies are considered core vaccines for cats We use the Purevax brand of vaccines, which have to be given yearly, but are MUCH safer for your cat! Other Cat Vaccines: • Bordetella – Given every 6 month • FIV & FIP – Given yearly, but not recommended due to lack of efficacy and side effects
Vaccine Boostering Adult dogs and cats, that have had their initial series of vaccines, get boostered every 6 months to 3 years depending on the vaccine and exposure. Adult dogs and cats with no veterinary documented vaccine history, go through a 2 shot series 3 weeks apart (except for rabies). Puppies and kittens go through a 2-3 shot series 3 weeks apart depending on vaccine and what age that we start the vaccines. Puppies • • • Distemper/Parvo – 3 shots All other vaccines a 2 shot series Rabies – 1 shot Kittens • • • Distemper – 3 shot series Leukemia - 2 shot series Rabies – 1 shot
What are these vaccines: If only I had been vaccinated… Canine Distemper Virus Vaccine • • • • Distemper is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic dogs and other animals such as ferrets, skunks and raccoons. It is an incurable, often fatal, multisystemic disease that affects the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Distemper is caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV). The disease is spread mainly by direct contact between a susceptible dog and a dog showing symptoms. Coughing and sneezing can spread the virus over short distances As with all infectious diseases, clinical signs can vary. The main clinical signs are diarrhea, vomiting, a thick yellow discharge from the eyes and nose, cough and, in severe cases, seizures and neurological signs. Dogs that recover from the disease are often left with persistent nervous muscular twitches (chorea) and recurrent seizures. There are many diseases that cause diarrhea and vomiting, several that cause similar respiratory and neurological signs, but few diseases that cause all of these at the same time.
What are these vaccines: Hepatitis - Adenovirus Infection in Dogs • • • • • • Hepatitis is defined as inflammation of the liver. As a specific disease, Infectious Canine Hepatitis (ICH) is a viral infection caused by a member of the Adenovirus family. It affects other members of the dog family, foxes for example, can be infected, but ICH virus is harmless to people. The hepatitis virus is present in the urine and in the nose and eye discharges of infected animals. The virus is transmitted by direct contact with these infected materials. Young dogs are at highest risk of contracting this virus, and signs of disease usually occur within two to five days after exposure to ICH; however, the incubation period can be as long as 14 days. In older dogs, some ICH infections may go unnoticed or be mild and resolve without medical intervention. Clinical signs in mild cases present as merely have a decreased appetite, appear depressed and have a mild fever. Some of dogs develop opacity (cloudiness) of one or both corneas of their eyes (so-called 'Blue Eye') one to two weeks later. Some dogs have respiratory signs such as eye and nose discharge and cough that are indistinguishable from other forms of upper respiratory tract infections like kennel cough. In severe cases, usually in young puppies, along with the fever, depression and loss of appetite, there is abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, puffy edema (subcutaneous fluid swelling) of the head and neck, and possibly jaundice. Such cases are often fatal. Ocular Opacity - “Blue Eye”
What are these vaccines: Canine Parvo Virus • • • • • I think I need a vet! Parvo, or canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious virus that can rapidly spread through the canine population. The main source of the virus is from the feces of infected dogs. The virus begins to be shed in the feces just before clinical signs develop and shedding continues for about ten days. Susceptible dogs become infected by ingesting the virus. After ingestion, the virus is carried to the intestine where it invades the intestinal wall and causes inflammation. Unlike most other viruses, CPV is very stable in the environment and is resistant to the effects of heat, detergents, alcohol, and many disinfectants. A 1:30 bleach solution will destroy the infective virus. Infective CPV has been recovered from surfaces contaminated with dog feces even after three months at room temperature. Due to its environmental stability, the virus is easily transmitted via the hair or feet of infected dogs, or on shoes, clothes, and other objects contaminated by infected feces. Direct contact between dogs is not required to spread the virus. Dogs that become infected with the virus and show clinical signs will usually become ill within six to ten days after exposure. The clinical signs and symptoms of CPV disease can vary, but generally they include severe vomiting and diarrhea. The diarrhea often has a very strong smell, may contain lots of mucus and may or may not contain blood. Additionally, affected dogs often exhibit a lack of appetite, marked listlessness and depression, and fever. Parvo may affect dogs of all ages, but is most common in unvaccinated dogs less than one year of age. Young puppies less than five months of age are usually the most severely affected, and the most difficult to treat. Any unvaccinated puppy that shows the symptoms of vomiting or diarrhea should be tested for CPV.
What are these vaccines: Leptospirosis in Dogs • • • • • Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease of dogs and other mammals that primarily affects the liver or kidneys. Leptospires are known as "aquatic spirochetes": the organism thrives in water and they have a helical or spiral shape with a characteristic hook on one or both ends. There are many species and serovars of Leptospira, some of which cause disease in dogs. Leptospira bacteria are carried mainly by rats and other rodents, but can also be carried by almost any mammalian species, including people. Infected or recovered "carrier" dogs may act as a source of the infection. Ingestion of infected urine or rodent-contaminated garbage is the most important means of transmission, but some forms of the bacteria can penetrate damaged or thin skin. For instance, when dogs swim in contaminated water, they may become infected through their skin. The incubation period (from infection to onset of clinical signs) is usually four to twelve days. There are three main forms of the disease: Hemorrhagic (bleeding), Icteric or jaundice (liver), Renal (kidney) NOTE: Leptospirosis can be transmitted to people, so owners of dogs that may have the disease should avoid contact between the owner's bare skin and their dog's urine, and wear rubber gloves when cleaning up any areas the dog may have soiled. Any areas where the dog has urinated should be disinfected. The organism is readily killed by household disinfectants or a dilute bleach solution. I didn’t mean to make you sick! Jaundice (yellowing) of mucus membranes
What are these vaccines: Infectious Canine Tracheobronchitis (Kennel Cough) • • • • • Kennel cough, the common name that is given to infectious canine tracheobronchitis, is a very highly contagious respiratory disease among dogs. As the name of the disease suggests, it is typified by inflammation of the trachea and bronchi. This disease is found throughout the world and is known to infect a very high percentage of dogs at least once during their lifetime. It is also medically referred to as kennel cough and Bordetella. Young puppies can suffer the most severe complications that can result from this disease, since they have an underdeveloped immune system that is still strengthening. Also at increased risk are older dogs, which have decreased immune capabilities, and pregnant bitches, which also have lowered immunity to infections. Symptoms: Dry hacking cough is the most common symptom, a cough that may sound like honking, retching, and watery nasal discharge. In mild cases, dogs would likely be active and eating normally In severe cases, symptoms progress and can include pneumonia, inappetence, fever, lethargy and even death It is commonly spread in group situations such as pet stores, groomers, dog parks & boarding facilities. According to the clinical signs, the visible onset of infection usually occurs three to four days after initial exposure, but when it is combined with other organisms – such as a combination parinfluenza-bordatella infection – the symptoms may last for up to three weeks.
What are these vaccines: Rabies • • • • • • • • Rabies is one of the most devastating viral diseases affecting mammals, including dogs and humans. How is rabies transmitted? The disease is usually transmitted by the bite of an infected animal. Rabies occurs in every continent except Australia and Antarctica. Most countries are affected, with the exception of a few island countries. Rabies virus does not survive long outside a mammal's body. The infection is transmitted when one infected animal bites another. In Europe, foxes are the main reservoir while in North America the skunk, fox, raccoon and bat are important sources of infection. In Asia, Africa and Latin America the main reservoir is not wildlife but stray dogs. In these areas, human infection and fatalities are more common. The incubation period can vary from ten days to one year or longer. In dogs/cats, the incubation period is typically two weeks to four months. The speed at which clinical signs develop depends upon: 1. The site of infection - the nearer the bite is to the brain and spinal cord, the quicker the virus reaches the nervous tissue 2. The severity of the bite 3. The amount of virus injected by the bite Following a bite from a rabid animal, the disease progresses in stages. In the first or prodromal phase the animal undergoes a marked change in temperament. Quiet animals become agitated and active pets become nervous or shy. Following this stage, there are two recognized forms of the clinical disease: Furious rabies occurs when the rabid animal becomes highly excitable and displays evidence of a depraved appetite, eating and chewing stones, earth and rubbish (pica). Paralysis eventually sets in and the rabid animal may be unable to eat and drink. Hydrophobia (fear of water) is not a sign of rabies in dogs. This is a feature of human rabies. The animal finally dies in a violent seizure. Dumb rabies is the more common form in dogs. There is progressive paralysis involving the limbs, distortion of the face and a similar difficulty in swallowing. Owners will frequently think the dog has something stuck in the mouth or throat. Care should be taken in examination since rabies may be transmitted by saliva. Ultimately the dog becomes comatose and dies. Vaccination prior to exposure is highly effective in preventing Rabies. Pets that are bitten by a wild animal or pet of unknown vaccine status should be boostered right away!
What are these vaccines: Feline Distemper Vaccine (RCCP or FVRCP) • Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis or FVR (also known as Feline Herpesvirus Type-1 ) Feline Calicivirus (FCV), Chlamydophila Felis (C. felis). Feline Panleukopenia (FPL) • Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis is a herpes viruses, the virus is very species specific, and is only known to cause infections in domestic and wild cats. The virus can infect cats of all ages. It is a major cause of upper respiratory disease in cats, and is the most common cause of conjunctivitis. Feline Calicivirus (FCV) is a virus that is an important cause of upper respiratory infections and oral disease in cats. Calicivirus is one of the more common infectious agents isolated in cats with a respiratory infection. Chlamydophila felis (C. felis) is the most common bacteria that cause upper respiratory infections in cats • • • Feline Panleukopenia (FPL) is caused by a virus of the parvovirus family. Since the virus infects and destroys rapidly growing cells, the intestinal tract is often affected. Vomiting and diarrhea are frequent and the diarrhea may contain blood. FPL cats often have to be hospitalized if they are to survive.
What are these vaccines: Feline Leukemia Virus Disease (FeLV) • • • • • • • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is one of the most important infectious viruses of cats.. FeLV is specific to members of the cat family and does not pose a risk to other species of animals or people. FeLV infection is found worldwide. In general, around 1-2% of the cat population is persistently infected with this virus, and many more are exposed. The proportion of cats infected differs according to the geographical location, environment and the life-style of the cat. Infection is more common in colonies of cats where there is close contact between individuals. FeLV infection results in a moderate to severe suppression of the immune system. This means that the infected cat is less able to defend itself against a wide range of infections that would not normally cause a problem in healthy cats. Affected cats may develop various clinical signs, and there is a progressive deterioration in their health over time. Another common occurrence in FeLV-infected cats is the development of a profound and life-threatening anemia. Other problems, including abortion, severe enteritis (intestinal inflammation), neurological (nervous) disease, and ocular (eye) disease are commonly associated with FeLV infection. FeLV is usually fatal. Studies have shown that 80-90% of FeLV-infected cats will die within three to four years of initial diagnosis. Direct contact between cats is the most frequent method of FeLV infection. A cat with FeLV sheds a large quantity of the virus in its saliva as well as in other bodily fluids such as nasal secretions, urine and feces. Ways of spreading the virus include mating, mutual grooming, and sharing of litter trays and food bowls. Cat bites by an infected cat can also readily transmit infection. Another potential source of infection occurs when a pregnant cat infected with FeLV gives birth.
What are these vaccines: Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection • • • • • Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is a virus specific to the cat family. Only 1 - 5% of cats show evidence of exposure to the virus. In some cats exposure to the virus leads to clinical signs and symptoms that result in deficiency in the immune system. "Just being diagnosed with the FIV virus does not mean your cat has feline AIDS." Being FIV-positive is not the same as having feline AIDS. The FIV test (see below) detects antibodies that have been formed in the cat's blood because of infection with the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus. "FIV-positive" means that your cat has been infected by the virus, but if it is not showing symptoms it may be years, if ever, before the cat develops the clinical signs referred to as Feline AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome of cats). Just being diagnosed with the FIV virus does not mean your cat has feline AIDS. Although HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS in people) belongs to the same family of viruses as FIV, the two viruses infect different species - HIV infects only humans and FIV infects only cats. Infected cats shed the virus mainly in their saliva. Naturally occurring transmission of an infection occurs when an infected cat that is actively shedding virus into the saliva bites another cat, directly inoculating its saliva through the bite wound. A susceptible cat can also become infected when other bodily fluids, particularly infected blood, enters the body. In this case, the infected blood may enter the cat's body through a bite wound, or the cat may become infected by means of a blood transfusion. Experimentally, the virus may also be transmitted through semen, but it is not clear whether this means of transmission is responsible for any naturally occurring cases. The FIV organism is not able to survive for very long outside of living cells. This is another reason that casual infection is uncommon. Kittens may become infected before, at, or soon after birth. In these cases, it is believed that the virus was transmitted across the uterus during pregnancy or through the queen's (mother cat's) milk during nursing. Around a quarter to a third of kittens born to an infected queen are likely to be infected themselves. Normal social interactions, such as grooming, appear to have a very low risk of transmitting FIV.
What are these vaccines: •Feline Infectious Peritonitis • • • • Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is an important disease of domestic cats and most members of the cat family (Felidae). It occurs worldwide in cats of all ages, but the disease is most common in young cats less than two years of age. Although FIP is not a particularly common disease, it is important because once a cat develops the disease, the outcome is almost invariably fatal. "FIP remains one of the least understood of all cat diseases." Because the Enteric Coronavirus and the FIP-causing strains of Feline Coronavirus (FCoV) are indistinguishable in laboratory tests (see later) and because many cats, even when infected with known FIP-causing strains do not develop FIP disease, the diagnosis of FIP is very challenging. The factors determining why one cat becomes diseased while others remain unaffected are unclear. Repeated re-infection and/or genetic factors are thought to contribute to the development of FIP. Most cats exposed to FCoV, even to the potentially FIP-inducing strains, are able to develop an immune response that protects them. Thus, only a small proportion of infected cats actually develop clinical disease. However, those that do develop disease almost invariably die. In cats that do develop FIP disease, the first signs of illness may be very vague. Listlessness, lethargy, decreased or absent appetite and a variable fever are commonly reported clinical signs. Unfortunately, the disease will eventually result in death in almost every case.
Horses count too! • Encephalitis, West Nile, Tetanus, Influenza and Rhino (Herpes) vaccines should be given every 6 months in this area • Rabies vaccine and Coggins tests are recommended yearly • Horses have teeth too! Teeth floating should be done every 6-12 months. This prevents oral pain and promotes good weight gain and digestion.
A final thought… Prevention is the key to having a long and healthy relationship with your pet. Prevents this Happy Pet Wellness Month!!
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