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Information about pestmanagement
Education

Published on February 13, 2008

Author: Manfred

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide1:  SECTION XV PEST MANAGEMENT Slide2:  PEST MANAGEMENT Objectives listed on Page 113 Be sure to Review these carefully Note particularly the terms listed. There are quite a few terms and You should be sure you can define these In relation to this course. Slide3:  What is a pest? Pest status depends on Population levels and Economic factors (and, in many situations, Personal attitude) Slide4:  Some pest management terms: Equilibrium position (EP) The average density of of a potential pest on a specific host (or crop). (The “normal” population level which Varies above and below a mean level) Slide5:  Economic threshold (ET) The population or damage level of a pest that serves as a warning of coming problems (The Signal that it is time to “do something”) Slide6:  Economic Injury level (EIL) The level of damage, or potential damage, that is equal to the Cost of Control (The level of damage that justifies Control) Slide7:  Some Insects are never pests - their Equilibrium position (EP) is always below the economic threshold (ET) Slide8:  Some Insects are occasional pests - and must be controlled at ET or they will reach EIL Slide9:  Some Insects are regular and serious pests Equilibrium position (EP) is always above EIL Slide10:  ??? Could you Identify The lines On these Graphs on An exam? Slide11:  Economic Considerations in Pest Management include: Value of crop (varies and often must be predicted) Cost of control (also varies with control measure, Effectiveness and “social” Considerations) Slide12:  What is a pest? Pest status also depends On your point of view And maybe when you live Slide14:  Approaches to Pest Management (overview) Mechanical Control Chemical Control Biological Control Integrated Pest Management Slide15:  Mechanical Control Fly swatters Slide17:  Mechanical Control Salvage logging Sanitation Water treatment of cut logs Kiln drying of lumber Slide18:  Chemical Control (must consider effects on Insects AND humans) Slide20:  Pesticides are poisons Slide21:  Pesticides are Toxic chemicals clip Slide22:  Characteristics of Pesticides Specificity – range of action Persistence – How long does it last? Toxicity – How dangerous? Measures of Toxicity LD 50 – dose (mg/kg) lethal to 50 % of test population Oral or Dermal Slide23:  Everyday Toxins Acute oral LD 50’s (mg/kg) Table Sugar 29,700 Baking Soda 3,500 Malathion 1,375 Aspirin* 1,000 (about 100 tablets) Table Salt 400 Caffeine* 192 (about 100 strong cups) Gasoline 150 Nicotine 53 Vitamin D (pure) 9.5 * For a 170 lb male) Slide24:  Mode of Action of Pesticides Stomach Poisons – B.T. Contact Poisons - Malathion Systemics - Temik Fumigants – Methyl bromide Repellents – Deet, Off Attractants – fire ant baits Class evaluation Today:  Class evaluation Today Information Needed on form Instructor’s Name: Brewer, J. W. Course number and prefix: ENTM 2040 Semester and Year: Fall, 2003 Purple form – put responses on front (1-14) White form - Put responses on back of purple form Slide26:  Please consider the following in your comments about the course. Would you prefer weekly quizzes rather than the “practice quizzes? Are the listed objectives helpful? Are the study questions helpful? Is the list of terms helpful? The glossary? Are the video clips helpful or distracting? What can I do to improve attendance? Would you recommend the course to a friend? An enemy? Did the course meet your needs? Were the exams representative of material presented in the course? Would you prefer to have a text book if available at reasonable cost? Please list any suggestions for improving the course? Course evaluation Slide27:  Insecticide Chemical Groups Nicotine – tobacco plants Pyrethrum - chrysanthemums Rotenone – tropical Derris plants Sabadilla – tropical lily Ryania – Ryania speciosa Characteristics: Quick knock down short residual time expensive Botanicals Slide28:  Organochlorines (also called Chlorinated hydrocarbons) DDT Methoxychlor Lindane Chlordane Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin Generally have long residue Toxicity varies greatly Slide29:  Organophosphates Malathion, Parathion, All are Cholinesterase Inhibitors Slide30:  Cholinesterase Inhibition Slide31:  Organophosphates Malathion, Parathion, All are Cholinesterase Inhibitors Generally very effective Toxicity varies greatly (Oral LD 50 Malathion 1200 +, Parathion 2 mg/kg) Short residual Start Here Friday:  Start Here Friday Slide33:  Carbamates carbyaryl (Sevin), carbofuran (furdan) Cholinesterase Inhibitors Generally quite effective Generally less toxic than OP Carbofuran is exception (Oral LD 50 8 mg/kg) Residual limited but longer than OP’s Slide34:  Synthetic Pyrethroids Ambush, Warrior T Much more effective than natural Pryrethrum Used at very low rates Relatively safe (LD 50 about 250 mg/kg Resistance a serious problem Slide35:  Formulations of Insecticides Pesticides are toxic (especially Phytotoxic) Must be diluted with some type of carrier (insecticide plus carrier Constitutes a formulation) Slide36:  Formulations Sprays Dusts Wettable Powders Emulsifiable concentrates aersols Slide38:  Pesticide Safety Keep away from Children (Most pesticide fatalities are Children under 5) Keep in original container Read the Label Remember – These are Poisons Slide40:  Pesticide Safety Clip Slide41:  Chemical Control (continued) Special Chemical Methods Insect Growth Regulators Slide42:  Insect Growth Regulators Affect Insect Development Diflubenzuron Affects cuticle formation, inhibits molting process Juvenile Hormone (JH) Methoprene (synthetic ecdysone) Slide43:  Pheromones (chemical used for communication within species) Sex Pheromones Aggregation pheromones Behavioral chemicals = semiochemicals Anti-aggregation pheromones Slide44:  Pheromones analyzed And Synthesized Synthetic pheromone impregnated into rubber septum Slide45:  Four short video clips on use of Pheromones In pest management (see page 124) Starts with Oriental beetle section Slide46:  Pheromone may be used in insect control and pest management Detection and monitoring (boll weevil, gypsy moth, turf beetle) Slide47:  Pheromone video – Survey and Detection Slide49:  Pheromone may be used in insect control and pest management Trap outs – Protection (German Bark beetles) Slide50:  Pheromone video - bark beetle trap outs Slide52:  Pheromone may be used in insect control and pest management 3) Attracticides – pheromone plus Insecticide (Pink boll worm) Slide53:  Pheromone video - Attracticides Slide55:  Pheromone may be used in insect control and pest management 4. Confusants German Grape berry Moth) Slide56:  Pheromone video – grape berry moth - confusants Start here Monday:  Start here Monday Slide59:  Pheromone may be used in insect control and pest management Detection and monitoring 2. Trap outs – Protection 3. Attracticides – 4. Confusants Slide60:  Biological Control Action of natural enemies Predators Parasites (Parasitoids) Pathogens Slide61:  Biological Control Usually Density dependent The percentage of hosts killed Increases with population density In contrast, natural control factors (like weather) are density independent Kill the same percentage of the pests regardless of population density Slide62:  Native Biological Control agents Introduced Biological Control Agents Slide63:  Criteria for Introduced biological Control agents No harmful effects Good searching ability, effective at all Host densities Well adapted to climate, and host Very host specific Highly reproductive Slide64:  Predators – Preying Mantids Slide66:  Preying Mantid video clip Slide67:  Predators Robber Flies Slide68:  Robber Fly Video Clip Slide69:  Predators – lady bird beetles Slide70:  Lady bird beetle (ladybug) Lady bird beetle Larva Eating aphids Slide72:  Lady bug video clip Slide73:  Parasitoid wasp and Lady bug video clip Slide74:  Predators – lacewing larvae and adults Slide76:  Lacewing video Slide77:  Predators – Preying Mantids lady bird beetles lacewing larvae and adults Ground beetles Slide78:  Predators – Ground beetles Slide79:  Predacious Ground Beetles Slide80:  Predators – Tiger beetles Slide81:  Tiger beetle Video Slide82:  Other Predators Predatory bugs Slide83:  Predacious bug Slide84:  Assassin bug attacking Termites – video clip Slide86:  Predatory Mites – Feed on other Mites Slide87:  Predatory Mites – Video clip Slide88:  Parasitoids – Pteromalid wasps Slide89:  Video clip - Pteromalid wasp ovipositing in aphid hosts Slide90:  Parasitoids – Chalcid wasps Cynipid wasps Braconid wasps Numerous Diptera Slide92:  Chalid Wasp Slide93:  Ichneumonid Wasp Slide94:  Value of Parasitoids versus Predators Start here Wednesday Slide95:  Parasitoids Generally very host specific Well adapted to host environment Well synchronized with host biology Low food requirements (small insects) Immatures do not have to search for Hosts Slide96:  Predators Not host specific, can switch prey when Food is scarce Tend to stabilize populations More effective in unstable environments Slide97:  Pathogens Bacteria – Bacillus thuringiensis B.T. (controls many species) Slide98:  Pathogens Fungi – Entomophthorales spp. (attacks Gypsy Moths) Slide99:  Pathogens Viruses NPV – Nuclear Polyhydrosis virus) Attacks Gypsy Moth and others Granulosis Virus Attacks Douglas-fir Tussock Moth Slide100:  Pathogens Protozoa – Nosema (attacks fall webworm) Slide101:  Approaches to Biological Control Importation Slide102:  Approaches to Biological Control Conservation Slide103:  Approaches to Biological Control Enhancement Slide104:  Advantages of Biological Control Control is self-perpetuating Control is selective and density dependent Does not create new problems (normally) Slide105:  Disadvantages of Biological Control Not effective against Direct Pests (where any damage is unacceptable Some level of damage occurs and must be acceptable Must be implemented over large areas May take years to become effective Slide106:  Other Approaches to Insect Control Host Resistance Preference/non-preference Insects simply prefer certain plants (loblolly pine versus long leaf) Slide107:  Other Approaches to Insect Control Host Resistance Antibiosis Host factors adversely affect Pest survival (High sap pressure in loblolly Pines) Slide108:  Other Approaches to Insect Control Host Resistance Tolerance Plant is attacked but is Not damaged significantly (Lodgepole needle miners) Slide109:  Other Approaches to Insect Control Legislative Control Laws made to prevent entry Or spread of pests (Quarantine against Pine shoot Borer) Slide110:  Integrated Pest management “The combination of all suitable techniques to reduce or manipulate pest populations so that they remain below economically important levels” Slide111:  Student Grade Report Extra Exam Exam Attendance Total Overall Current % Credit 1 2 points points % grade attendance Name John Q. 10 150 160 20 340 85% B 71%

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