Published on November 28, 2016
1. Selection operational and maintenance of pest control equipment for application of pesticide BY : JAYANT YADAV, CCSHAU, HISAR, HARYANA
2. Plant Protection Equipment Selecting the right equipment for pesticide application is important for successful pest control. The correct usage of equipment and its proper maintenance are important factors which affect the ability to place pesticides on target more economically and effectively. The choice of equipment depends on its specific use and the need of a particular pest control measure.
3. Role of pesticide application To cover the target with maximum efficiency and minimum efforts to keep the pest under control as well as minimum contamination of non-targets. The application techniques ideally should be target oriented so that safety to the non-targets and the environment is ensured. Therefore, proper selection of application equipment, knowledge of pest behaviour and skillful dispersal methods are vital. The complete knowledge of pest problem is important to define the target i.e., location of the pest (on foliage, under the leaves, at root zone etc).
4. To Enhance Safety and Benefits and to Get the Most From Any Sprayer: Select the right equipment. Set it up correctly. Use proper operation procedures. Perform proper maintenance. The pesticide label Durable Convenient to fill Convenient to operate • Easy to clean • Non-absorbent • Corrosion resistant • Resistant to damage
5. Types of Plant Protection Equipment Hand sprayers and atomizers Hand compressed sprayers Knapsack sprayers Tractor-mounted sprayer Motorized knapsack mist blowers Ultra low volume or controlled-droplet applicators (ULV/CDA)
6. Fogging machines/fogair sprayers Hand-carried dusters Hand-carried granule applicators Power dusters Aerial application (Aircraft sprayers) Injectors and fumigation equipment cont…
7. Types of Spray Equipment Hand sprayer Knapsack (LOK) Battery powered
8. Low pressure hydraulic High pressure ULV Chemigation or injection
9. Application Equipment:9 Two basic types of application systems: Liquid (sprayers) Granular
10. Types of application devices: 10 Centrifugal, rotary, or broadcast Drop Pendulum Pneumatic
11. Types of Application Foliage sprays (shrubs, trees) Area coverage (soils or lawns) Spot sprays LAWN Fertilization Weed control Insect/Fungi control HORT Fertilization Insect/Disease control Dormant oil treatments 11
12. Volume of pesticide solution applied depends upon: Nozzle tips Pressure Speed Nozzle spacing
13. Nozzle Types Flat pattern Uniform when boom is at proper height Broadcast pattern Not uniform
14. Nozzle Types Flooding fan Hollow cone Best for direct spraying not boom. Not as uniform as flat fan.
15. Importance of Droplet Size Droplet size plays a very important role in pesticide application by minimizing environmental contamination. Pesticide sprays are generally classified according to droplet size. When drift is to be minimized, a medium or coarse spray is required irrespective of the volume applied.
16. Pesticides Droplet Description Desired Droplet Size (microns) Insecticides Fungicides Very Fine < 119 Fine 119 - 216 Herbicides: Pre- and Post emergent Medium 217 - 353 Coarse 354 - 464 Soil application of Herbicides Very Coarse > 464
17. Application Techniques Apply only where pests are located. Don’t allow activities to reduce effectiveness: Rain, not watering-in, etc. Tailor applications to pest habits: Water-in grub control materials
18. Type of Pest Controlled Insecticide Acaricide Nematicide Fungicide Rodenticide Avicide Herbicide - Insects - Mites and ticks - Nematodes - Fungi - Rats and rodents - Birds - Weeds
19. Apply only the amount of pesticide necessary to obtain the desired level of pest control.
20. Selecting a Pesticide Labeled for the pest or site. Produces desired level of control. Least disruptive to the environment. Non - phytotoxic. Economically practical. Compatible with turf management. Acceptable to the public.
21. Selection and use of Spraying Equipment Spraying equipment should be selected on the basis of: Frequency of pesticide application, Availability of diluent (water, oil, kerosene, etc.), Availability of labor (human or animal power), Area requiring treatment Durability of equipment, Cost of equipment, Availability of after sales service, Operating cost, and Speed required to treat an area (this will depend on type of crop, stage of crop growth, and volume of spray solution to be applied).
22. Pesticide Formulations When selecting, consider: – Application method – Ease of storage and mixing – Risk when handling – Risk of moving off target – Cost
23. Problems Associated with Spraying Equipment Nozzle blockages Blocked nozzle should be cleaned and spares should be taken to the field. Nozzle tip and filter should be replaced with clean points Inefficient pumps Pumps are fitted with 'O' ring seals or leather or synthetic cup washers Checked regularly Leakage Compression spray equipment and certain motorized knapsack mist blowers function properly provided they are airtight
24. Before Spraying Put on protective gear. Rinse and clean system. After filling, check for leaks. Adjust equipment according to recommendations and label. Limit drift. Check for uniform output.
25. During Spray Applications Wear protective gear.… label. Operate according to owner’s manual. Check for nozzle clogging or pattern changes. Clean nozzles with a soft tool, not metal. Never unclog a nozzle by blowing through it.
26. After Spraying Flush hoses, tanks, nozzles. Wipe off residues. Clean equipment before: Making repairs Switching pesticides Check operation and repair. Re-use rinse water Do not use herbicide- designated equipment for other applications.
27. Installing and Maintaining Equipment Once equipment has been installed: • It must be maintained regularly • Only qualified people should maintain it • Set up a maintenance schedule with your supplier or manufacturer • Check equipment regularly to make sure it is working correctly 9-7
28. Care and Maintenance of Plant protection Equipment General maintenance Care and upkeep of hand sprayer & duster Care and upkeep of power sprayers and dusters Care and upkeep of pp equipment when not in use Care and upkeep of pp equipment when taken to field Care and upkeep of pp equipment in transportation
29. Maintenance Normal maintenance jobs include cleaning the equipment and applying necessary lubricating oils and greases to the rubbing and moving parts. If this normal maintenance is neglected the machine gets rusted and moving parts wear out quickly resulting in loss of efficiency, frequent replacement of spare parts and finally uneconomical working.
30. Special care has to be taken for maintaining the plant protection equipment. The pesticide formulations are chemically aggressive on metals, etc. The cleaning and washing of the chemical tank, discharge lines, nozzles, etc., are to be done regularly after the day's spraying work is completed otherwise the residues of chemicals used for spraying acts on the parts and causes corrosion and deterioration of materials.
31. Maintenance and safe handling Daily maintenance Clean after use. Check pump, nozzles, etc., before operation with water. Inspect mobile parts
32. Periodic preventive maintenance Pumps Pipes and connections Pressure gauges and pressure regulators Agitator Nozzles and booms Tank components Engine
33. Off-season maintenance and storage All plant protection equipment must be stored in a cool and dry place and in the shade. Equipment should be washed thoroughly with plain water before storage. Grease and lubricants should be applied to joints and surfaces wherever required to protect from rust