Pesticide Types- L. Sandell

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Information about Pesticide Types- L. Sandell
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Published on March 28, 2014

Author: ekillinger1

Source: slideshare.net

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Pesticide Types- L. Sandell 3-25-14 & 3-26-14

3/25/2014 1 Pesticide Types, Chemical Control & Environmental Risk* Roch E. Gaussoin Extension Turfgrass Specialist University of Nebraska *Everything you wanted to know about pesticides but were afraid to ask Do not forget IPM, BMP, PHC • Proper management and common sense can reduce the use of and environmental risk(s) of pesticides Pesticide Development • Past • Present • Future Pesticide Types • Target Pest – Insecticides – Herbicides – Fungicides – Growth Regulators – ……… • Formulation – Liquid – Dry • Application Method – Spray – Granular Target Pest • Insecticides • Herbicides • Fungicides • Plant* Growth Regulators (*and Insect) Pesticide Formulations • Liquid formulations applied as a spray – Emulsifiable Concentrates EC – Flowable (F) – Water Miscible Liquids (L) • Dry formulations applied as a spray – Water Dispersible Granules (WDG) – Wettable Powders (WP) – Dry Flowables (DF) • Dry formulations applied dry – Granular – Dusts

3/25/2014 2 Pesticide Compatibility • Tank Mixing is efficient • Pesticide Label • Pesticide Effects in Mixtures – (1+1=2) Additive Effect – (1+1=0.5) Antagonistic Effect – (1+1=3) Synergistic Effect Why Pesticides Fail • Pest incorrectly identified • Incorrect Rate • Equipment Not Calibrated Correctly • Wrong Carrier Volume • Mode of Action not understood • Application Timing • Pest Resistance • Weather Pesticide PEST Adjuvants and what they do Adjuvants • Anything added to a pesticide mixture to enhance performance – wetting agents – stickers/spreaders – drift control agents – dyes/markers Wetting Agents • AKA “spreaders” • decrease surface tension • improve dispersion in spray mixtures • reduce separation in spray hoses

3/25/2014 3

3/25/2014 4 = Toxicity X Exposure • Toxicity – Acute • LD50 (mg/kg) – Long term • Cancer, reproductive and genetic mutations • Exposure – Intimate contact with the pesticide RISK Criteria for Selecting a Pesticide • Low Toxicity – Not just LD50 – Chronic Effects • Low Potential for Exposure – Formulation – Application method – Application Timing – Lower use rate • Effective – A less toxic pesticide with lower efficacy may require repeat application How to minimize exposure • Application timing • Application Method – Minimize drift – Maximize placement and retention to target • Formulation – G vs L • Posting & Re-entry • Protective Equipment

3/25/2014 5 How to determine toxicity • Pesticide Label • Pesticide MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet Material Safety Data Sheet Material Safety Data Sheet The lower the LD50 the greater the toxicity Material Safety Data Sheet

3/25/2014 6 Material Safety Data Sheet Insecticide SQUISH SQUASH LD50 400 760 Formulation 4 EC 4 EC Rate/M Ai/M Efficacy Chronic Toxicity A hypothetical example of selection Insecticide SQUISH SQUASH LD50 400 760 Formulation 4 EC 4 EC Rate/M 1.5 oz 3 oz Ai/M 0.75 oz 1.5 oz Efficacy Chronic Toxicity A hypothetical example of selection Insecticide SQUISH SQUASH LD50 400 760 Formulation 4 EC 4 EC Rate/M 1.5 oz 3 oz Ai/M 0.75 oz 1.5 oz Efficacy 85% 85% Chronic Toxicity A hypothetical example of selection Insecticide SQUISH SQUASH LD50 400 760 Formulation 4 EC 4 EC Rate/M 1.5 oz 3 oz Ai/M 0.75 oz 1.5 oz Efficacy 85% 85% Chronic Toxicity * None A hypothetical example of selection

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