Published on March 28, 2014
3/25/2014 1 Pesticide Types, Chemical Control & Environmental Risk* Roch E. Gaussoin Extension Turfgrass Specialist University of Nebraska *Everything you wanted to know about pesticides but were afraid to ask Do not forget IPM, BMP, PHC • Proper management and common sense can reduce the use of and environmental risk(s) of pesticides Pesticide Development • Past • Present • Future Pesticide Types • Target Pest – Insecticides – Herbicides – Fungicides – Growth Regulators – ……… • Formulation – Liquid – Dry • Application Method – Spray – Granular Target Pest • Insecticides • Herbicides • Fungicides • Plant* Growth Regulators (*and Insect) Pesticide Formulations • Liquid formulations applied as a spray – Emulsifiable Concentrates EC – Flowable (F) – Water Miscible Liquids (L) • Dry formulations applied as a spray – Water Dispersible Granules (WDG) – Wettable Powders (WP) – Dry Flowables (DF) • Dry formulations applied dry – Granular – Dusts
3/25/2014 2 Pesticide Compatibility • Tank Mixing is efficient • Pesticide Label • Pesticide Effects in Mixtures – (1+1=2) Additive Effect – (1+1=0.5) Antagonistic Effect – (1+1=3) Synergistic Effect Why Pesticides Fail • Pest incorrectly identified • Incorrect Rate • Equipment Not Calibrated Correctly • Wrong Carrier Volume • Mode of Action not understood • Application Timing • Pest Resistance • Weather Pesticide PEST Adjuvants and what they do Adjuvants • Anything added to a pesticide mixture to enhance performance – wetting agents – stickers/spreaders – drift control agents – dyes/markers Wetting Agents • AKA “spreaders” • decrease surface tension • improve dispersion in spray mixtures • reduce separation in spray hoses
3/25/2014 4 = Toxicity X Exposure • Toxicity – Acute • LD50 (mg/kg) – Long term • Cancer, reproductive and genetic mutations • Exposure – Intimate contact with the pesticide RISK Criteria for Selecting a Pesticide • Low Toxicity – Not just LD50 – Chronic Effects • Low Potential for Exposure – Formulation – Application method – Application Timing – Lower use rate • Effective – A less toxic pesticide with lower efficacy may require repeat application How to minimize exposure • Application timing • Application Method – Minimize drift – Maximize placement and retention to target • Formulation – G vs L • Posting & Re-entry • Protective Equipment
3/25/2014 5 How to determine toxicity • Pesticide Label • Pesticide MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet Material Safety Data Sheet Material Safety Data Sheet The lower the LD50 the greater the toxicity Material Safety Data Sheet
3/25/2014 6 Material Safety Data Sheet Insecticide SQUISH SQUASH LD50 400 760 Formulation 4 EC 4 EC Rate/M Ai/M Efficacy Chronic Toxicity A hypothetical example of selection Insecticide SQUISH SQUASH LD50 400 760 Formulation 4 EC 4 EC Rate/M 1.5 oz 3 oz Ai/M 0.75 oz 1.5 oz Efficacy Chronic Toxicity A hypothetical example of selection Insecticide SQUISH SQUASH LD50 400 760 Formulation 4 EC 4 EC Rate/M 1.5 oz 3 oz Ai/M 0.75 oz 1.5 oz Efficacy 85% 85% Chronic Toxicity A hypothetical example of selection Insecticide SQUISH SQUASH LD50 400 760 Formulation 4 EC 4 EC Rate/M 1.5 oz 3 oz Ai/M 0.75 oz 1.5 oz Efficacy 85% 85% Chronic Toxicity * None A hypothetical example of selection
Type of pesticide Target pest group; Herbicides: Plant: Algicides or Algaecides: Algae: Avicides: ... Larramendy, Marcelo L.; Soloneski, Sonia [Editors ...
Pesticide resistance describes the decreased ... Resistance to insecticides was first documented by A. L. Melander in 1914 ... Pesticide types:
Le mot pesticide vient de l'anglais, ... divers types de pesticides dérivés de produits naturels, Les catégories de produits suivants, ...
Types of Pesticides. There are many different types of pesticides, each is meant to be effective against specific pests. The term "-cide" comes from the ...
OSH Answers Fact Sheets. Easy-to-read, ... Common Types of Pesticides; Category Purpose Examples; Insecticides: Kills or repel insects, ticks and mites ...
Classification of Pesticides Pesticide Formulation Type of ... widely used in controlling stored grain pests. All types of pests can be ... G.L ., Sheshu ...
l The type of life cycle of the plant (annual, biannual, or perennial). l The degree of maturity of the ... This is true by almost all types of pesticides.
L'azadirachtine, azadirine et autres ... et d'autre part à limiter l'efficacité des pesticides en favorisant des phénomènes de résistances aux ...
Pesticide Products What is a "pesticide" and what's not? According to the law, a pesticide is any substance "intended for preventing, destroying, repelling ...