Published on August 18, 2009
Persuasion, Emotion & Trust The Strategy of Persuasive Design UK Brighton, 11th August 2009 Robert Gillham Project Director EMEA, Human Factors International
Human Factors International • 200+ user-centered design professionals • 27 years of operating history • Project teams composed of both “local” and “global” experts Courses in London, • ISO certified offices (ISO 9001:2000) Utrecht and Hamburg London Hamburg Minneapolis Boston Fairfield San Francisco New York Baltimore Shanghai Chicago Mumbai Pondicherry Bangalore Singapore 2
Why Consumer Experience is Important 79% of consumers will commit to a deeper brand relationship – through product or service adoption – after a satisfying online experience 59% of customers will stop doing business with the brand after just one bad experience in any channel IBM customer study 3
Initial relationship building has passed to the hands of the users Internet & Salesman Store Self-serve 4
Persuasion, Emotion & Trust? Persuasion Emotion Trust • Communication • Defined loosely as a • To have faith or intended to induce physiological state of confidence in belief or action arousal something or • Process of guiding • Triggered by beliefs someone someone toward the about something adoption of an idea, • Has cognitive, attitude, or action by physiological, social, rational and symbolic and behavioural means aspects • Not coercive 6
“Six Weapons of Influence” • Reciprocity • Commitment Consistency • Social Proof • Authority • Liking • Scarcity HFI Proposal: Project Title for Client 7
“Six Weapons of Influence” • Reciprocity • Commitment Consistency • People tend to return a • Social Proof favour • Authority • Liking • Scarcity 8
“Six Weapons of Influence” • Reciprocity • Commitment Consistency • People behave more • Social Proof consistently when they have • Authority committed to something • Liking • Scarcity 9
“Six Weapons of Influence” • Reciprocity • Commitment Consistency • People are more likely to do • Social Proof what everyone else is doing • Authority • Liking • Scarcity 10
“Six Weapons of Influence” • Reciprocity • Commitment Consistency • People will obey perceived • Social Proof figures of authority • Authority • Liking • Scarcity 11
“Six Weapons of Influence” • Reciprocity • Commitment Consistency • People are more likely to buy • Social Proof from people they like • Authority • Liking • Scarcity 12
“Six Weapons of Influence” • Reciprocity • Commitment Consistency • Goods become more valuable • Social Proof as they become scare and we • Authority compete for them • Liking • Scarcity 13
Tools for PET Design 14
PET – BEYOND the site • Do consumers connect with the site? • Does the experience educate? • Do behaviors and attitudes change? Will Can do? do. USABILITY– WITHIN the site • Can users find information? • Do they understand what they find? • Can they interact with it? 15
BUT, …. Emotion influences perceived usability Once a consumer feels positively (or negatively) about a product or service, their emotional reaction influences the perceived importance of small usability issues 16
Challenges to PET design “You Can’t Just Ask” • Pantyhose Study by Nisbett and Wilson 12% 17% 31% 40% “This pair is sheerer” “I think this pair is better made.” 17
Tools for PET Research 1. Desk-research • Demographics • Existing research (psychological and domain-specific) 2. Priming Questions (Telling Stories) • Lets talk about the last time you… • Tell me what inspires you about… 3. Open Exploration 3. Conversion-related Tasks • Physiological (eye tracking) • Expressive (facial expressions, tone of voice, body language) • Verbal 4. Retrospective Analysis • Emotion: Circle the emoticon • Describe the site/Draw a picture/Read the text 5. Trust Questions 18
PET techniques illuminate/confirm drives, barriers & beliefs Target Attitudes Barrier Target Behavior Barrier Barrier Barrier Belief Barrier Feeling Barrier Barrier Feeling Belief Motivation or Drive Feeling Belief Belief Feeling 19
PET Design creates a conversation that addresses those issues to create a conversion path Target Attitudes Barrier Target Behavior Barrier Barrier Barrier Belief Barrier Feeling Barrier Barrier Feeling Web Site Exposure Belief Motivation or Drive Consumer Feeling Path Belief Belief Feeling 20
Finding the flow
HFI Case Study Persuasion, Emotion & Trust| New Product Messaging 22
Lovaza is in a new space: PharmaAlternative New pharma product Alternative Traditional Medicine Pharma Prescription supplement
PET techniques illuminate/confirm drives, barriers & beliefs Fear of prescription Talking to medications Filling the script the doctor takes effort Is intimidating Big Pharma is not trustworthy I want to I want to learn more protect about how my health to be healthier
Drives | Protecting my health is critical “I want to Beliefs protect Feelings my health” Feel I can control Diet and exercise Is hard Need to be there for my family Should be able to control through diet and exercise Fear of early death Doubt whether I’m lazy this will work Putting chemicals In your body Is Uncertainty about bad for you level of risk Hope this will work
Building Trust | People like me & people I like Do you know who I am? Challenge: I don’t see myself here – Only 3 photos: 2 people and a doctor – Physique is not representative Strategy – Show people throughout the site – Use a wider range of body type, especially heavier Addresses: Mistrust of Pharma (Block)
Current Strategy: Create urgency to drive action Get concerned about Ask doctor about Visit the site triglycerides prescription Get and fill Numbers are down – May stop taking prescription fear reduced meds
Augmented approach Goal: Create proactive health seekers • Create urgency to drive action • Educate to adherence Drive small, Change behavior Modify incremental to reflect new self-image commitments self-image “I am a person “I take my meds Fill out a who takes consistently to questionnaire responsibility for maintain my their health” health”
Measuring Persuasion | Analytics 29
Define where in the user journey we intend to attract, engage & persuade 30
Enter Site Browse & Choose a Start Commit to Converted Explore conversion path “Checkout” Convert Visitor Unengaged Unpersuaded Unconverted
Common Analytics Common Conversion Enter Site Browse & Choose a Start Commit to Converted Explore conversion path “Checkout” Convert Visitor Common Conversion =Convα/Vα
Persuasion Analytics Common Conversion Engaged Conversion Enter Site Browse & Choose a Start Commit to Converted Explore conversion path “Checkout” Convert Visitor Engaged Conversion =Convα/Vα-VU
Persuasion Analytics Common Conversion Engaged Conversion Committed Conversion Enter Site Browse & Choose a Start Commit to Converted Explore conversion path “Checkout” Convert Visitor Engaged Conversion =Convα/Vα-VU Committed Conversion =Convw/inpath /Vw/inpath
HFI Case Study | Persuasive Design AAA-MidAtlantic 35
Measuring discovery… 36
What does AAA do? What people know…. What AAA does 1. Roadside Assistance 1. Membership benefits 2. Trip-tiks 2. Travel 3. Automotive 4. Entertainment Discounts 5. Loans 6. Insurance 7. Banking The original design applied a sell everything everywhere strategy. This resulted in a cluttered and overwhelming sites. Benchmark eyetracking studies showed that visitors left the homepage before they even noticed the critical value of an AAA membership – saving money on every day purchases. Persuasion Emotion and Trust (PET) explored how target customers think about the products and services that AAA provides. One key finding was the seducible sequence for cross sell and upsell of related products and services.
Is the website doing its job? 39
Members hip benefits Auto Car Insurance maintenance Extended tools & tips Research warranty car Auto Loan 40
Create different groupings than card sort… Original design HFI redesign 41
Create different groupings than card sort… Original design HFI redesign 42
Creating the Seductive Sequence 43
Measurable Changes 44
From persuasion to profit … ROI – Membership • 2 x more visitors / day enter the join funnel • 17% convert in the funnel • Basic membership costs $60 Conservatively: • 700 new members * 17% * $60 * 30 days = • $214K increased conversion in 1st month • [Project cost recovery < 1 month]
• Human beings make decisions based on emotional responses as well as rational thought processes • Usability governs ‘Can They Do It’, but Persuasion, Emotion & Trust governs ‘Will They Do It?’ • The tools for uncovering PET issues are similar but differ from usability (e.g. ‘Think Aloud’ isn’t much help) • Psychological principles give us a framework for thinking about PET solutions • PET can be engineered, measured and ROI justified 47
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