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Published on January 15, 2008

Author: Silvia

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Trait Aspects of Personality:  Trait Aspects of Personality Theories of Personality Prepared by: Jim Messina, Ph.D. Trait Theorists:  Trait Theorists Carl Jung R.B. Cattell Gordon Allport Hans Eysenck Paul Costa Jr. & Robert McCrae Henry Murray Trait Approach to Personality:  Trait Approach to Personality Consistent reaction patterns of an individual can be predicted from knowing person’s personality traits Trait: basic limited set of adjective dimensions which describe and scale individuals 18,000 adjectives (Allport) Adler’s Personality Typology:  Adler’s Personality Typology Jung’s Functions of the Mind:  Jung’s Functions of the Mind Sensing – Is there something there? Thinking - What is it that is there? Feeling - What is it worth? Intuiting – Where did it come from and where is it going? Sensing & Thinking=Rational-Judgment & reason Feeling & Intuiting=Irrational-conscious reasoning is virtually absent Jung’s Attitudes of the Mind:  Jung’s Attitudes of the Mind Exists in each person one is more dominant than other in each person Extroversion – direct psychic energy towards the things in external world Introversion – direct psychic energy more inwardly focused Myers-Briggs Types- 4 Functions:  Myers-Briggs Types- 4 Functions Sensation (S) seeks fullest possible experience of what is immediate and real Intuition (N) seeks the broadest view of what is possible and insightful Thinking (T) seeks rational order and plan according to impersonal logic Feeling (F) seeks rational order according to harmony among subjective values Myers Briggs Attitudes & Orientation to Outer World:  Myers Briggs Attitudes & Orientation to Outer World Attitudes: Extroverted (E) attention drawn out to objects & people in environment Introverted (I) attention on inner world of concepts & Ideas Orientation-implicit in Jung’s work Perceptive (P) – attuned to incoming information Judging (J) – making decisions, seeking closure, planning operations, or organizing activities Factor Analysis:  Factor Analysis Statistical technique which reworks or reduces information we already have in order to make it more understandable Helps reduce or eliminate redundant information in a list of personality descriptors R.B. Cattell used factor analysis to breakdown the adjectives of Allport-into trait schemes using Q,T,and L data Cattell’s Types of Information Analyzed in Factor Analysis :  Cattell’s Types of Information Analyzed in Factor Analysis Q-data=data gathered from self-reports & questionnaires – questionnaire data T-data=data gathered in controlled test situations-observational ratings and notes – test data L-data=data gathered over person’s life, school, work, community etc. - life data Factor analysis=form of construct validity Cattell’s 16 PF – Personality Factors- Trait schemes:  Cattell’s 16 PF – Personality Factors- Trait schemes Outgoing-reserved More-less intelligent Stable-emotional Assertive-humble Happy-go-lucky-sober Conscientious-expedient Venturesome-shy Tender-minded-tough minded Suspicious-trusting Imaginative-practical Shrewd-forthright Experimenting-conservative Self-sufficient-group-tied Controlled–casual Tense-relaxed Gordon Allport:  Gordon Allport Defined Personality as: “The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behaviors and thoughts”-organization within an individual Each person has unique key qualities Emphasized traits-Freud emphasized instinctual drives Functionally Equivalent-Allport:  Functionally Equivalent-Allport A trait is an internal structure that renders many stimuli functionally equivalent and can guide equivalent forms of adaptive and expressive behavior. Regularities in Thoughts, feelings & actions arise: because individual views many situations and stimuli in same way Many of individual’s behaviors are similar in meaning-functionally equivalent Consistencies=common traits & personal dispositions Common Traits-Allport:  Common Traits-Allport Traits that people in a population share due to common biological & cultural heritage which are basic dimensions These people have common organizing structures Allport discounted its value in understanding personality Functionally Autonomous -Allport:  Functionally Autonomous -Allport Traits which have become independent of their origins in childhood Childhood might be root of the trait or tendency but do not continue to influence the tendency in adulthood It is not necessary to unearth where tendency or trait which dominates a person’s life originated in order to help person deal with the troubling tendency Proprium - Allport:  Proprium - Allport Core of the personality One’s own or one’s self Under the layers of our human psyche is an irreducible core that defines who we are Personal Dispositions - Allport:  Personal Dispositions - Allport Trait-a generalized neuropsychic structure peculiar to an individual No two personalities are alike Idiographic methods take into account each person’s uniqueness e.g.: interviews, behavioral observations, Q-sorts, flexible self-reports-identifies the differences between people-takes into account each persons personal disposition Cardinal Dispositions - Allport:  Cardinal Dispositions - Allport Personal disposition which exerts overwhelming influence on behavior Ruling passions of life Albert Schweitzer’s reverence for life Ralph Nader’s passion for environment Tiger Wood’s passion for golf Central Dispositions - Allport:  Central Dispositions - Allport Personality is organized around several central dispositions which are qualities or characteristics which can succinctly describe a person It is incomplete to just seek general laws for all person Big Five Approach-Costa & McCrae:  Big Five Approach-Costa & McCrae ’80’s-’90’s-Research Driven Model-Inductive-Data Driven Theory Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Neuroticism Openness Extroversion:  Extroversion Extroverted people Energetic, Enthusiastic, Dominant, Sociable Talkative Introverted people Shy Retiring Submissive Quiet Agreeableness:  Agreeableness High Agreeableness Friendly Cooperative Trusting Warm Low Agreeableness Cold Quarrelsome Unkind Conscientious:  Conscientious Lack of impulsivity Cautious Dependable Organized Responsible Impulsive Careless Disorderly Undependable Neuroticism:  Neuroticism Emotional Instability Nervous High-strung Tense Worrying Emotionally stable Calm Contented Openness:  Openness Culture Imaginative Witty Original Artistic Low on culture Shallow Plain Simple Implicit Personality Theory:  Implicit Personality Theory There are consistencies and biases in how people see personalities Erroneously seeing traits as going together Raters may be wrong seeing things that are not really there People are prone to see other people in terms similar dimensions even if they are not really there Hans Eysenck:  Hans Eysenck 3 Type Theory –Biological Determinism-Heredity in Everything E – Extraversion – linked to ascending reticular activating system (ARAS)-reticular formation of Brain Stem N – Neuroticism – linked to limbic system-brains emotional center regulates sex, fear & aggression P – Psychoticism – linked to endocrine gland-especially which controls sex drive Eysenck’s Types:  Eysenck’s Types E-Extroversion outgoingness & assertiveness N-Neuroticism emotional instability & apprehensiveness P-Psychoticism tendency toward psychopathology, impulsivity & cruelty, tough mindedness & shrewdness Types:  Types Categories or class of people Discreet classes of people Matter of degrees with no clear boundaries when dealing with psychological characteristics Motives:  Motives Internal psychobiological forces that help induce particular behavioral patterns Forces within humans pushing for expression e.g.: need for food, play, pleasure More basic than traits – underlying traits Involve a goal Needs, drives and emotions are related to motives Life tasks-goals based on state in life Personal striving-goals in daily behaviors Needs:  Needs Readiness to respond in a certain way under given circumstances –Murray 1962 Need to achieve, for affection, dominance & exhibition Need for Achievement – n Ach:  Need for Achievement – n Ach If identity closely identified with success Persistent and driven to succeed Quantity of success more important than quality Shrewdness & persistence needed to win Less skillful in diplomacy & cooperation Need for Affiliation – n Aff:  Need for Affiliation – n Aff Gregarious instinct-wanting to come together in groups Sentiment-instinct-socialized to be attached to an individual Motivation to have lots of friends Need to draw near to & win affection of others Need for Power – n Power:  Need for Power – n Power Need for dominance Seek positions and offices which are controlling over others Need for Exhibition:  Need for Exhibition Need for emotional communication Need to show self before others and amuse, entertain, excite or even shock others Colorful, spellbinding, noticeable, dramatic & showy Expressive style is the clue to this need Expressive Styles::  Expressive Styles: Expressive Style: Personality communicated through vocal characteristics, facial expression and body gestures & movements Emotional Expressiveness:Individual has typical ways of expressing or inhibiting feelings like anger or joy Dominance, Leadership, Influence: differentiate self from others with strong impact on others Personality in context of importance of communications with others

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