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Published on August 9, 2007

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Stress, Adjustment and Health Aspects of Personality:  Stress, Adjustment and Health Aspects of Personality Theories of Personality Prepared by: Jim Messina, Ph.D. How to Understand Personality Impact on Health?:  How to Understand Personality Impact on Health? Health related issues go to Brain for analysis Brain sorts out the information Translated message sent to appropriate system in body to react Mind-Body Connection based on Personality:  Mind-Body Connection based on Personality We still have lots to learn There is no simple trick to understand the interrelationship We are going to look at a variety of concepts andamp; beliefs No one model can apply to all people Slide4:  Psychosomatic Medicine:  Psychosomatic Medicine Psyche or Mind affects the Soma or Body Belief that one’s personality is related to one’s health Sensation Seeking Scale – Zuckerman, 1979, 1983:  Sensation Seeking Scale – Zuckerman, 1979, 1983 Health Behaviors are related to one’s health Scale measures propensity for sensation seeking-convicted drivers scored high on scale Type T Theory – Farley, 1990:  Type T Theory – Farley, 1990 Thrill seeking Trait Psychobiological need for stimulation due to an internal arousal deficit Need to be channeled into safe heart pounding activities Personal Health Behaviors:  Personal Health Behaviors Link between Personality and Health Certain types due to biology andamp; socialization likely engage in risky behaviors-smoke, drink, skydiving etc… These people are prone to disease and premature mortality Sick Role – Mechanic,1968:  Sick Role – Mechanic,1968 Certain people respond to stressful life events by entering sick role Societal expectations about how you should behave when sick-stay home, see doctor, act grumpy, be moody, rest, stay in bed, etc… Who uses the “Sick Role”:  Who uses the 'Sick Role' People under extreme stress People, who are not well adjusted When people encounter challenge in life 'Secondary Rewards' of sick pay, sick days, sympathy, being cared for Neurotic personalities or low self-esteem may become ill due to social andamp; cognitive aspects of society’s 'sick role' Somatopsychic Effect:  Somatopsychic Effect Disease affects the mind Body affects the mind Disease or genetic predisposition affect personality Asthma, Juvenile diabetes, heart problems Personality Factors affecting Health and Illness:  Personality Factors affecting Health and Illness May result from disease process May lead to unhealthy behavior May directly affect disease through physiological mechanisms Underlying biological variable may relate to both personality andamp; disease Several causes and feedback loops may affect relationship between personality andamp; disease Type A Behavior Pattern Freidman & Rosenman, 1974:  Type A Behavior Pattern Freidman andamp; Rosenman, 1974 Based on upholstery front of chairs worn out Thought they were 'coronary-prone personality' Workaholics Do more work in less and less time Type A Individual's Characteristics:  Type A Individual's Characteristics Perceive time passing quickly Show deteriorating performance on tasks that require delayed responding Work near maximum capacity even when there is no time deadline Arrive early for appointments Become aggressive and hostile when frustrated Report less fatigue and fewer physical symptoms Are intensely motivated to master their physical andamp; social environments andamp; to maintain control Slide15:  Slide16:  What is Coronary Prone Personality? – Glass, 1980:  What is Coronary Prone Personality? – Glass, 1980 Confrontational, competitive andamp; driven lives Due to the struggle Driven to excessive achievement andamp; total mastery of their world React with hostility when frustrated Learned Helplessness-Giving Up, Seligman, 1975:  Learned Helplessness- Giving Up, Seligman, 1975 Lose all control and give up Stop making efforts to control one’s environment-even it it is controllable Pessimism-less healthy Retirement-could be time of helplessness Slide19:  Terman Life-Cycle Study-Friedman, 1995:  Terman Life-Cycle Study-Friedman, 1995 Began 1921 with 1500 bright pre-adolescent boys and girls By 1990 ½ had died Was there a difference between resilient vs sickness prone personalities Survival Analysis of Terman’s Termites-Traits:  Survival Analysis of Terman’s Termites-Traits Conscientiousness- social dependability-Less likely to die from injury or engage in unhealthy habits- encourages longevity Sociability-on impact on longevity Unacceptable Social Behaviors-impulsivity, egocentrism, tough-minded, undependable seemed to be relevant Survival Analysis of Terman’s Termites-Traits:  Survival Analysis of Terman’s Termites-Traits Cheerfulness-optimism and sense of humor-good for facing surgery, not good for bad habits-'it won’t affect me' Parental Divorce-negatively impacted longevity-family stress Mental Health-significant mortality risk if unstable Blaming the Victim:  Blaming the Victim Reasons: put distance between ourselves and his disease andamp; desire for a predictable world On other hand there are things people can do to prevent or ward off disease andamp; illness Self-Healing Personalities:  Self-Healing Personalities Control: in facing challenge feel power to influence outcome Commitment: to something important or meaningful-work, communities andamp; family Challenge: energy andamp; excitement for life change andamp; innovation Self-Healing Personalities:  Self-Healing Personalities Trust andamp; Devotion: (Rotter, 1980) people who trust others are less likely to be unhappy, conflicted, or maladjusted-dependable andamp; have more friends-healthier Self-Healing Personalities:  Self-Healing Personalities Zealous: active, busy, confident, productive, hardworking, highly extroverted Relaxed: calm, jocular, droll, active, alert, involved, responsive NO TWO PEOPLE ARE ALIKE Nonverbal Cues of Self-Healing or Disease Prone Personality:  Nonverbal Cues of Self-Healing or Disease Prone Personality Self Healing Calm-even speech Even hand gestures away from body Open, relaxed body Mutual gaze Smooth movements Charismatic andamp; optimistic Disease Prone Uneven speech Loud, explosive voice Sighs, stutters, ums Clenched fist, teeth Closed body posture Fidgets shifts tapping Shifty-eyed,downcast Facial grimace Vocal gesture impatience Over controlled calm unexpressiveness Placebo Effects:  Placebo Effects Any intervention that does hot have a specific, expected, direct physiological effect on the body Psychological belief in the placebo’s healing power can bring on body healing Importance of Meaning, Dignity & Respect-Identity:  Importance of Meaning, Dignity andamp; Respect-Identity Don’t treat me as a disease treat me as a person Don’t be afraid to look at or touch me Don’t talk to my family as if I am not in the room Frankl: you must have identity and purpose to survive SalutogenesisAntonovsky, 1979:  Salutogenesis Antonovsky, 1979 General theory of how people stay healthy Sense of Cohesion: Person’s confidence that the world is understandable, manageable andamp; meaningful Taking extraordinary challenges in stride Slide31:  Diathesis-Stress Model:  Diathesis-Stress Model Diathesis: predisposition (genetics) of body to disease or disorder Stress: environment conditions elicit or are ripe for the disease or disorder Stress:  Stress Factors in environment: which offer challenge, distress, problems to solve, each unique to each individual Most potent: recall of emotionally charged experiences (Lown, 1987) Definitions of Stress:  Definitions of Stress Quality of an external stimulus Response to a stimulus Results from interaction between stimulus and response- Stress-process involves environmental event (a stressor), its appraisal by the individual,various responses of the organism, reevaluations resulting from responses andamp; changes in stressor Slide35:  Slide36:  Slide37:  Slide38:  Slide39:  Stress Process:  Stress Process Slide41:  Slide42:  Physiological Effects of Stress:  Physiological Effects of Stress Sympathetic Nervous System (system responsible for mobilizing body resources in urgent situations) stimulate the adrenal medulla of the adrenal glands The adrenal stimulation results in production of catecholamines, Epinephrine andamp; Norepinephrine (effect body’s heart rate, respiration, blood flow andamp; muscle strength) Slide44:  Slide45:  Physiological Effects of Stress :  Physiological Effects of Stress Stress causes pituitary gland (structured connected to hypothalamus in forebrain) to release andreno-corticotropic hormone (ACTH) ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland to secrete glucocorticoids. The most important is cortisol which mobilizes body’s resources by increasing energy and decreasing inflammation especially in injuries Slide47:  Physiological Effects of Stress:  Physiological Effects of Stress Slide49:  Immune System:  Immune System Slide51:  Limbic:  Limbic Slide53:  Negative Impact of Prolonged Stress Response:  Negative Impact of Prolonged Stress Response Negative impact on body organs, mental functioning andamp; Immune system Affect immune system so cannot destroy viruses, bacteria, tumors, andamp; irregular cells Still not clear total impact of stress on immunosuppression –in any case it is important influence on health and illness Slide55:  Self-Efficacy impact on Health:  Self-Efficacy impact on Health 'People’s beliefs about their capacity to exercise control over events that affect their lives.' (Bandura, 1989, p. 1175) role in behavior andamp; lifestyle choices which ultimately influence health (e.g. smoking, drinking, risk taking etc.) Plays role in Health belief Model-function of threat andamp; coping appraisal Protection Motivation Theory Theory of Planned Behavior

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