Personality Mapping, Conflict management and Team building

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Information about Personality Mapping, Conflict management and Team building
Business & Mgmt

Published on November 30, 2008

Author: ddroy

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Personality Mapping, Conflict management and Team building. It is under up gradation. You can use it for your presentation.

Personality Mapping in Conflict Management and Team Building Dr. D. Dutta Roy, Ph.D. Psychology Research Unit Indian Statistical Institute 203, B.T. Road, Kolkata – 700 108 E-mail: ddroy @ isical .ac.in http://www.isical . ac.in/~ddroy/invt.html Venue : Heritage Institute of Technology, Kolkata 29.11.08

WHAT IS PERSONALITY ?

Myths About Personality - 1 Personality can be assessed by appearance

Myths About Personality - 2 Personality can be assessed by one’s Conscious behavior

Myths About Personality - 3 It is inherited and Environment has no role. Therefore, we can not change our personality.

What is Personality ? Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those Psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to its environment Allport Jamsetji Tata

Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those Psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to its environment

Allport

Characteristics of Personality

Dynamic It varies with changes in Person-Environment fit across situations. It is developed through self monitoring and learning.

It varies with changes in Person-Environment fit across situations. It is developed through self monitoring and learning.

Organization It can not be studied with only one attribute. Therefore, it is multi dimensional.

It can not be studied with only one attribute. Therefore, it is multi dimensional.

Psychophysical It is related to changes in physiological system. There is a body-mind relationship. Ref: Dutta Roy, D. ( 2004 ). ANALYSIS OF GHQ-12 DATA COLLECTED FROM ANTARCTICA EXPEDITION, UNPUBLISHED PROJECT SUBMITTED TO ISI., KOLKATA

It is related to changes in physiological system. There is a body-mind relationship.

Unique It varies from individual to individual.

It varies from individual to individual.

Determine unique adjustment It directs individual to cope with environment in unique way.

It directs individual to cope with environment in unique way.

How Personality develops

Taxonomy of Personality (India) The major approaches are: Stages of development : Physical, Mental, Psychic, Spiritual ( Shri Aurobindo) Layers of Personality : Outer, Inner and Inner core (Shri Maa) Types : Sattwik, Rajasik, Tamasik (Vivekananda) Value : Himsa, Ahimsa (Buddha) Attribution : Locus of control (Gita)

The major approaches are:

Stages of development : Physical, Mental, Psychic, Spiritual ( Shri Aurobindo)

Layers of Personality : Outer, Inner and Inner core (Shri Maa)

Types : Sattwik, Rajasik, Tamasik (Vivekananda)

Value : Himsa, Ahimsa (Buddha)

Attribution : Locus of control (Gita)

Consciousness Layers Outer Layer: -Missing -Anomalies Inner Layer -Vividness -Orderliness -Complexity Inner Core Layer Harmony with Environment Aesthetics Cleanliness

Inner Core Layer

Harmony with Environment

Aesthetics

Cleanliness

Taxonomy of Personality (West) The major approaches are: Stages of development : Freud, Erikson Types : Jung, Myers and Briggs, Holland Trait : Eysenck, Cattell Need : Murray, Maslow, Herzberg Value : Allport, Rokeach Attribution : Rotter’s Locus of control Culture specific personality : Individualism and collectivism

The major approaches are:

Stages of development : Freud, Erikson

Types : Jung, Myers and Briggs, Holland

Trait : Eysenck, Cattell

Need : Murray, Maslow, Herzberg

Value : Allport, Rokeach

Attribution : Rotter’s Locus of control

Culture specific personality : Individualism and collectivism

Freud’s Psycho sexual Development

Erikson’s Stages of Development

Jung’s Type Introvert : finds meaning within. They are introspective. Extrovert : finds meaning outside the self/ surroundings. Jung’s Mandala

Introvert : finds meaning within. They are introspective.

Extrovert : finds meaning outside the self/ surroundings.

Eysenck’s Trait clusters Neuroticism Unstable Tense, Anxious Stable Relaxed High Sociable,Impulsive Low Unsocial, Cautious High Aggressive,Impersonal, cold Low Warm, aware of others, non-aggressive Extraversion Psychoticism

Cattell’s 16 P.F. RESERVED LESS INTELLIGENT AFFECTED BY FEELINGS HUMBLE SOBER EXPEDIENT SHY TOUGH-MINDED TRUSTING PRACTICAL FORTHRIGHT PLACID CONSEVATIVE GROUP DEPENDENT CAUSAL RELAXED OUTGOING MORE INTELLIGENT MORE EMOTIONALLY STABLE ASSERTIVE HAPPY GO LUCKY CONSCIENTIOUS VENTURESOME TENDERMINDED SUSPICIOUS IMAGINATIVE SHREWD APPREHENSIVE EXPERIMENTING SELF SUFFICIENT CONTROLLED TENSE A B C E F G H I L M N O Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

RESERVED

LESS INTELLIGENT

AFFECTED BY FEELINGS

HUMBLE

SOBER

EXPEDIENT

SHY

TOUGH-MINDED

TRUSTING

PRACTICAL

FORTHRIGHT

PLACID

CONSEVATIVE

GROUP DEPENDENT

CAUSAL

RELAXED

OUTGOING

MORE INTELLIGENT

MORE EMOTIONALLY STABLE

ASSERTIVE

HAPPY GO LUCKY

CONSCIENTIOUS

VENTURESOME

TENDERMINDED

SUSPICIOUS

IMAGINATIVE

SHREWD

APPREHENSIVE

EXPERIMENTING

SELF SUFFICIENT

CONTROLLED

TENSE

Big Five Personality Factors Extraversion : Talkative, Sociable Agreeableness: Good-natured, Co-operative Conscientiousness :Responsible,Tidy Emotional Stability :Calm, Composed Culture : Artistic, Imaginative - Costa and Mc Crae

Extraversion : Talkative, Sociable

Agreeableness: Good-natured, Co-operative

Conscientiousness :Responsible,Tidy

Emotional Stability :Calm, Composed

Culture : Artistic, Imaginative

- Costa and Mc Crae

Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Human behavior is determined by the need fulfillment in hierarchical orders

Human behavior is determined by the need fulfillment in hierarchical orders

Allport Theoretical : Importance on discovery of truth Economic : Emphasizes the useful and practical Aesthetic : highest value on form and harmony Social : Highest value on love of people Political : Acquisition of power and influence Religious : Unity of experienceand understanding of the cosmos

Theoretical : Importance on discovery of truth

Economic : Emphasizes the useful and practical

Aesthetic : highest value on form and harmony

Social : Highest value on love of people

Political : Acquisition of power and influence

Religious : Unity of experienceand understanding of the cosmos

Rokeach Instrumental : Preferable modes of behaviour ( Comfortable life, Social recognition etc.) 18 values Terminal : End state of existence ( Obedient, Courageous etc. ) 18 values

Instrumental : Preferable modes of behaviour ( Comfortable life, Social recognition etc.) 18 values

Terminal : End state of existence ( Obedient, Courageous etc. ) 18 values

Rotter Locus of Control: Internal : Outcomes stem mostly from their own actions External : Outcomes stem from external causes (luck, fate etc.)

Locus of Control:

Internal : Outcomes stem mostly from their own actions

External : Outcomes stem from external causes

(luck, fate etc.)

HOW IS IT SHAPED IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT ?

Social Cognitive learning Orientation develops through social learning Role Model selection

Ambitious Planning Ambitious planning sometimes maximizes gap between corporate and social responsibility.

Ambitious planning sometimes maximizes gap between corporate and social responsibility.

Personality conflict Mismatch between expected self and actual self causes conflict

Mismatch between expected self and actual self causes conflict

PERSONALITY MAPPING

What is Personality Mapping ? It is a Psychometric technique of profiling personality of individual or group of individuals for the purpose of classification.

It is a Psychometric technique of profiling personality of individual or group of individuals for the purpose of classification.

Steps Exploring research variables Development of instrument (Questionnaire, checklist or tests) Collect large data Determine distribution of association among the variables Extract latent traits Determine significant difference between the groups in latent traits.

Exploring research variables

Development of instrument (Questionnaire, checklist or tests)

Collect large data

Determine distribution of association among the variables

Extract latent traits

Determine significant difference between the groups in latent traits.

Johari Window INVESTIGATOR C L I E N T Known Known Unknown Unknown OPEN DARK BLIND FAÇADE

Exploring Personality Variables

Exploring techniques FACADE DARK OBSERVATION PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION INTERVIEW FOCUSED GROUP DISCUSSION FREE ASSOCIATION PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE DATA MINING MAPPING PROFILING CAUSAL RELATIONS http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/sgitc/read5.htm

FACADE

DARK

OBSERVATION

PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION

INTERVIEW

FOCUSED GROUP DISCUSSION

FREE ASSOCIATION

PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE

DATA MINING

MAPPING

PROFILING

CAUSAL RELATIONS

Participant observation Participant observation is a set of research strategies which aim to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or sub-cultural group, or a particular community) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment, often though not always over an extended period of time. Malinowski in data collection

Participant observation is a set of research strategies which aim to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or sub-cultural group, or a particular community) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment, often though not always over an extended period of time.

INTERVIEW MODEL Least control on Respondent More control on Respondent Informal Unstructured Semi-structured Structured

Probability for variable exploration Structured Unstructured High prob. Low prob

Focused group In focus group, a screened (qualified) group of respondents gathers in the same room . There are usually 6 to 10 members in the group, and the session usually lasts for 1 to 2 hours. A moderator guides the group through a discussion that probes attitudes about a client's proposed products or services. The discussion is loosely structured, and the moderator encourages the free flow of ideas.

In focus group, a screened (qualified) group of respondents gathers in the same room . There are usually 6 to 10 members in the group, and the session usually lasts for 1 to 2 hours. A moderator guides the group through a discussion that probes attitudes about a client's proposed products or services. The discussion is loosely structured, and the moderator encourages the free flow of ideas.

Free Association Lying on a couch (a position imposing a certain state of relaxation), the patient speaks freely of anything that may cross his/her mind, without searching for some specific subject or topic. The flow of his/her thoughts is free, and followed with no voluntary intervention. The important thing is that the critical mind does not intervene to censor spontaneous thoughts. We truly have the drive to censure the products of our thinking, starting from various criteria: moral, ethic, narcissistic, cultural, spiritual. The method of free associations demands us to temporarily give up intellectual censorship and freely speak about any thought. Freud explored principles of defense mechanisms based on free association techniques.

Lying on a couch (a position imposing a certain state of relaxation), the patient speaks freely of anything that may cross his/her mind, without searching for some specific subject or topic. The flow of his/her thoughts is free, and followed with no voluntary intervention. The important thing is that the critical mind does not intervene to censor spontaneous thoughts. We truly have the drive to censure the products of our thinking, starting from various criteria: moral, ethic, narcissistic, cultural, spiritual. The method of free associations demands us to temporarily give up intellectual censorship and freely speak about any thought.

Freud explored principles of defense mechanisms based on free association techniques.

PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE Unstructured stimuli to which individual responds. Stimuli ranged from complete unstructured to semi structured. Complete unstructured stimuli are inkblots suggested by Swiss Psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach (1884-1922). Projective techniques are used for revealing one’s innermost thoughts and feelings (Rapaport, 1942, 1970). Rorschach noted the followings: A large percentage of clearly visualized forms; Many kinaesthetic influences acting in the perceptive process; A large number of whole answers; Good conceptive types – W, W-D, or W-D-Dd; Optimum rigidity of sequence of mode of apperception (orderlys); Small percentage of animal answers; Neither too large nor too small percentage of original answers;

Unstructured stimuli to which individual responds. Stimuli ranged from complete unstructured to semi structured. Complete unstructured stimuli are inkblots suggested by Swiss Psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach (1884-1922). Projective techniques are used for revealing one’s innermost thoughts and feelings (Rapaport, 1942, 1970).

Rorschach noted the followings:

A large percentage of clearly visualized forms;

Many kinaesthetic influences acting in the perceptive process;

A large number of whole answers;

Good conceptive types – W, W-D, or W-D-Dd;

Optimum rigidity of sequence of mode of apperception (orderlys);

Small percentage of animal answers;

Neither too large nor too small percentage of original answers;

DATA MINING http://www.csu.edu.au/special/auugwww96/proceedings/crawford/crawford.html

Data Mining

Complaints of School going Adolescents Cluster 1: Cognitive anxiety; Cluster 2: Social anxiety Burt Table: Counselling data Correspondence map

Cattell’s 16 P.F. RESERVED LESS INTELLIGENT AFFECTED BY FEELINGS HUMBLE SOBER EXPEDIENT SHY TOUGH-MINDED TRUSTING PRACTICAL FORTHRIGHT PLACID CONSEVATIVE GROUP DEPENDENT CAUSAL RELAXED OUTGOING MORE INTELLIGENT MORE EMOTIONALLY STABLE ASSERTIVE HAPPY GO LUCKY CONSCIENTIOUS VENTURESOME TENDERMINDED SUSPICIOUS IMAGINATIVE SHREWD APPREHENSIVE EXPERIMENTING SELF SUFFICIENT CONTROLLED TENSE A B C E F G H I L M N O Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

RESERVED

LESS INTELLIGENT

AFFECTED BY FEELINGS

HUMBLE

SOBER

EXPEDIENT

SHY

TOUGH-MINDED

TRUSTING

PRACTICAL

FORTHRIGHT

PLACID

CONSEVATIVE

GROUP DEPENDENT

CAUSAL

RELAXED

OUTGOING

MORE INTELLIGENT

MORE EMOTIONALLY STABLE

ASSERTIVE

HAPPY GO LUCKY

CONSCIENTIOUS

VENTURESOME

TENDERMINDED

SUSPICIOUS

IMAGINATIVE

SHREWD

APPREHENSIVE

EXPERIMENTING

SELF SUFFICIENT

CONTROLLED

TENSE

PERSONALITY MAP (BASED ON FACTOR ANALYSIS)

Personality Map (Based on Sten score)

How does it help ? In formulating personnel specification for job analysis and job evaluation In development of performance appraisal system In selecting right man for right job In analysis of Management development needs (leadership/conflict mgt./team building etc.) In identifying counseling or guidance needs In managing conflict In team building

In formulating personnel specification for job analysis and job evaluation

In development of performance appraisal system

In selecting right man for right job

In analysis of Management development needs (leadership/conflict mgt./team building etc.)

In identifying counseling or guidance needs

In managing conflict

In team building

Characteristics of Personality Mapping Psychometric : It is a study to explain psychological phenomenon (e.g. ability or competency/personality etc.) in terms of measurement principles. It covers measurement principles of test development (Item analysis, assessing reliability, validity, test standardization etc.), and of profile analysis (profile similarity and classification). Profile : Graphical representation of the correspondence of the set of data. Profiling : Plotting correspondence of the set of data. Measurement Principles : Next slide >

Psychometric : It is a study to explain psychological phenomenon (e.g. ability or competency/personality etc.) in terms of measurement principles. It covers measurement principles of test development (Item analysis, assessing reliability, validity, test standardization etc.), and of profile analysis (profile similarity and classification).

Profile : Graphical representation of the correspondence of the set of data.

Profiling : Plotting correspondence of the set of data.

Measurement Principles : Next slide >

Measurement Principles Test Development Item Analysis Reliability testing : Time and internal consistency Validity : Content, Construct, Discriminating, Predictive Standardization : Correlation of two sets of questionnaire data collected from same group

Item Analysis

Reliability testing : Time and internal consistency

Validity : Content, Construct, Discriminating, Predictive

Standardization : Correlation of two sets of questionnaire data collected from same group

Measurement Principles for Profile comparison Single individual profile analysis : Frequency distribution, Percentage analysis Individual to individual comparison : Rank order correlation coefficient Individual to group comparison : Sten score/ standard score/T-score Group wise comparison : t-statistics, F- statistics, Cluster analysis, Correspondence analysis, Discriminant function analysis Identifying latent traits : Factor analysis Predicting Criteria : Simple, Stepwise Multiple Regression analysis

Single individual profile analysis : Frequency distribution, Percentage analysis

Individual to individual comparison : Rank order correlation coefficient

Individual to group comparison : Sten score/ standard score/T-score

Group wise comparison : t-statistics, F- statistics, Cluster analysis, Correspondence analysis, Discriminant function analysis

Identifying latent traits : Factor analysis

Predicting Criteria : Simple, Stepwise Multiple Regression analysis

Individualism VS Collectivism Fostering independence Promoting personal choice Upward mobility Associated with private property or individual ownership Fostering interdependence Promoting adherence to norms Associated with hierarchical roles Associated with shared property

Fostering independence

Promoting personal choice

Upward mobility

Associated with private property or individual ownership

Fostering interdependence

Promoting adherence to norms

Associated with hierarchical roles

Associated with shared property

What is Conflict ? Conflict is the cognitive appraisal of being pulled in two or more directions by opposing motives.

Conflict is the cognitive appraisal of being pulled in two or more directions by opposing motives.

Why do we study Conflict Management ? Costs of conflict Loss of decision making efficacy, development of negative affectivity. Moving towards external control from internal control. Intra personal, inter personal, inter group and inter departmental distance. Low productivity, Accident, Labour turnover, Strike and Lockout.

Costs of conflict

Loss of decision making efficacy, development of negative affectivity.

Moving towards external control from internal control.

Intra personal, inter personal, inter group and inter departmental distance.

Low productivity, Accident, Labour turnover, Strike and Lockout.

Levels of Conflict Management INDIVIDUAL LEVEL GROUP LEVEL ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: INDIVIDUAL LEVEL

Types of Conflict Double Approach Conflict Double Avoidance Conflict Approach – avoidance conflict Double approach – avoidance conflict

Double Approach Conflict

Double Avoidance Conflict

Approach – avoidance conflict

Double approach – avoidance conflict

Double Approach Conflict Least Stressful Conflict Resolution is not to vacillate the decision for long time. Analyze positive and negative powers of two forces and make decision. G + G + I

Least Stressful Conflict

Resolution is not to vacillate the decision for long time.

Analyze positive and negative powers of two forces and make decision.

Double Avoidance Conflict More Stressful Conflict as two goals are negative. Avoiding one requires approaching other. Resolution is to Withdraw by focusing other matters. G - I G -

More Stressful Conflict as two goals are negative. Avoiding one requires approaching other.

Resolution is to Withdraw by focusing other matters.

Approach-Avoidance Conflict Very Stressful Conflict as there is a single goal for which there is both a tendency to approach and a tendency to avoid. it draws your attention and again distracts you from your goal. Resolution is self control. I

Very Stressful Conflict as there is a single goal for which there is both a tendency to approach and a tendency to avoid.

it draws your attention and again distracts you from your goal.

Resolution is self control.

Double Approach and Double Avoidance Conflict Extreme stressful Conflict as the individual is faced with having to choose between two (or more) goals, each of which has both attracting and repelling aspects Resolution is Withdrawl or Self control. How can I show my face to family and to colleagues ? I G + _ G + _

Extreme stressful Conflict as the individual is faced with having to choose between two (or more) goals, each of which has both attracting and repelling aspects

Resolution is Withdrawl or Self control.

G +

_

G +

_

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: GROUP LEVEL

Conflict Management Assertiveness Cooperativeness Avoiding Accommodating Competing Collaborating Compromising

Competing When one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests, regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict.

When one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests, regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict.

Collaborating The intention is to solve the problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating various points of view.

The intention is to solve the problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating various points of view.

Avoiding Where a person recognizes that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it or suppress it.

Where a person recognizes that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it or suppress it.

Accommodating Where one party seeks to appease an opponent, that party may be willing to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own.

Where one party seeks to appease an opponent, that party may be willing to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own.

Compromising Each party in conflict seeks to give up some thing, sharing occurs, resulting in a compromised outcome. Here no one is loser or winner but solution provides incomplete satisfaction of both parties’ concerns.

Each party in conflict seeks to give up some thing, sharing occurs, resulting in a compromised outcome. Here no one is loser or winner but solution provides incomplete satisfaction of both parties’ concerns.

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL Unambiguous communication Realigning work group Altering rules and regulations Increasing interdependence structural changes to disrupt status quo

Unambiguous communication

Realigning work group

Altering rules and regulations

Increasing interdependence

structural changes to disrupt status quo

How is Personality Mapping related to Conflict management and team building ? Personality Mapping data provides insight About the probability of taking into consideration what types of conflict ( definition , Types ) management styles ( different styles ) are likely to be followed by the individual or by the group.

Personality & Team building Five personality dimensions play critical role on team building. Interpersonal orientation (Approval orientation, authoritarianism, cyclothymia (approach tendency), schizothymia (avoidance tendency); Social sensitivity: Empathy, social insight, sociability among others; Ascendant tendencies: Assertiveness, Dominance, Dependability: Personal integrity, Behavioural consistency; Emotional stability: Emotional control, defensiveness etc.

Five personality dimensions play critical role on team building.

Interpersonal orientation (Approval orientation, authoritarianism, cyclothymia (approach tendency), schizothymia (avoidance tendency);

Social sensitivity: Empathy, social insight, sociability among others;

Ascendant tendencies: Assertiveness, Dominance,

Dependability: Personal integrity, Behavioural consistency;

Emotional stability: Emotional control, defensiveness etc.

Publications on Personality Dutta Roy,D. (1992) Personality traits of Antarctic expeditioners , Psychological Studies, 37,2&3, 95-98. Dutta Roy,D.(1994) Relative importance of personality factors in discriminating four occupational groups, Indian Journal of Applied Psychology , 31,1,34-38. Mukerjee,M.and Dutta Roy, D. (1994) A Cross cultural study on similarity of personality profiles of teachers and physicians developed on the basis of 16 PF, Indian Journal of Psychology , 69, 3 & 4, 79-86. Dutta Roy, D. (1994) Personality structure of teacher s , Indian Educational Review ,25, 34, 89-92. Dutta Roy, D.(1995) Differences in personality factors of experienced teachers,physicians, bank managers and fine artists , Psychological Studies, 40,1, 51-56. Dutta Roy, D. (1995) A comment on the similarities in the sixteen PF profiles of Indian and American creative artists , Indian Journal of Psychological Issues, 1,(1 & 2), 11-14. Dutta Roy, D. (1995) Personality profile similarity of Indian and British physicians , Asian Journal of Psychology and Education, 28, 5-6, 5-8. Dutta Roy, D. (2002) Personality differences across four metropolitan cities of India, Indian Psychological Review , 58,2,71-78.

Dutta Roy,D. (1992) Personality traits of Antarctic expeditioners , Psychological Studies, 37,2&3, 95-98.

Dutta Roy,D.(1994) Relative importance of personality factors in discriminating four occupational groups, Indian Journal of Applied Psychology , 31,1,34-38.

Mukerjee,M.and Dutta Roy, D. (1994) A Cross cultural study on similarity of personality profiles of teachers and physicians developed on the basis of 16 PF, Indian Journal of Psychology , 69, 3 & 4, 79-86.

Dutta Roy, D. (1994) Personality structure of teacher s , Indian Educational Review ,25, 34, 89-92.

Dutta Roy, D.(1995) Differences in personality factors of experienced teachers,physicians, bank managers and fine artists , Psychological Studies, 40,1, 51-56.

Dutta Roy, D. (1995) A comment on the similarities in the sixteen PF profiles of Indian and American creative artists , Indian Journal of Psychological Issues, 1,(1 & 2), 11-14.

Dutta Roy, D. (1995) Personality profile similarity of Indian and British physicians , Asian Journal of Psychology and Education, 28, 5-6, 5-8.

Dutta Roy, D. (2002) Personality differences across four metropolitan cities of India, Indian Psychological Review , 58,2,71-78.

THANK YOU Publications: http://www.isical.ac.in/~ddroy/abstract.html

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