Personality incomplete

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Information about Personality incomplete

Published on August 9, 2007

Author: Gulkund


Personality :  Personality Personality:  Personality Personality refers to the distinctive and relatively enduring way of thinking, feeling, and acting for a particular individual (Passer andamp; Smith, 2007). Does 'personality' really exist? That is, is behavior really enduring or is it situation-specific? Psychodynamic Perspective:  Psychodynamic Perspective Personality is an 'energy system' Where does the energy come from: Conscious wishes and desires Pre-conscious wishes and desires And, more importantly, unconscious wishes and desires (e.g., sexual impulses) Slide4:  3 structures of personality Id– Ego- Superego- Defense Mechanisms:  Defense Mechanisms When the ego is having trouble curtailing the wishes of the id, the individual experiences anxiety and unconscious mechanisms are deployed. Repression Sublimation Projection Reaction formation Psychodynamic approaches:  Psychodynamic approaches They can differ drastically (e.g., Freud vs. Adler), but they share some similarities Adler Jung Bowlby Humanistic Approaches:  Humanistic Approaches Response to Freud Focus on … Focus on … (cf. Freud) Humanistic approaches:  Humanistic approaches Personal construct theory (Kelly) Importance of construal (not event, per se) Personal constructs affect interpretation which affect behavior. Humanistic Approaches:  Humanistic Approaches Carl Rogers: Humans are good by nature and naturally progress toward self-actualization Self-concept To be fully functional means … More Rogers:  More Rogers Need for positive regard: When do we like ourselves? More Rogers:  More Rogers According to Rogers fully functional means Having a flexible self-concept that accommodates to feedback Accepting the self as it is; living authentically (no masks) Self-esteem:  Self-esteem How open should the self-concept be to revision? … This seems inconsistent with Roger’s view, no? Self-related motivations:  Self-related motivations Self-esteem - The global or overall evaluation that one has of oneself (positive or negative) What is the self motivated to do? Self-verification – Self-enhancement – Self-appraisal – The Trait-Perspective:  The Trait-Perspective Personality traits are relatively stable cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics of people that help establish their individual identities Where do traits come from? Genes (e.g., temperament), environment? What are the major traits that are necessary to describe an individual? Cattell believed their were 16 MaCrae andamp; Costa say 5 The “Big Five”:  The 'Big Five' Openness – Conscientious – Extraversion – Agreeableness – Neuroticism – Is Personality Stable?:  Is Personality Stable? … … Conclusion: Behavior is a function of the situation and the person in the situation Behavioral and social-cognitive theories:  Behavioral and social-cognitive theories Reciprocal determinism: the person, the person’s behavior, and the environment all influence one another. Slide18:  Disagreeable personality Nasty comment Nasty Comment returned person behavior environment Bandura’s Theory of Self-efficacy:  Bandura’s Theory of Self-efficacy What do you strive for, how do you go about accomplishing your goals? Self-Efficacy- beliefs concerning one’s ability to perform the behaviors needed to achieve a goal. Past experience Observational learning (if I can see it, then I can do it) Verbal persuasion ('just do it’) Emotional arousal “Measuring” personality:  'Measuring' personality Issues of validity and reliability Types of measures Structured interviews Behavioral assessment (when and how frequently does a behavior occur) Diaries Personality scales Implicit tests (e.g., Ink blot test; TAT)

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