Personality: Dispositional Perspectives

43 %
57 %
Information about Personality: Dispositional Perspectives

Published on August 10, 2008

Author: jtneill

Source: slideshare.net

Description

The purpose of this lecture is to introduce and discuss dispositional perspectives of personality, particularly personality types and personality traits, to consider the personality vs. situation debate and the notion of interactionism.

Personality: Dispositional Perspectives James Neill 2008 [email_address]

James Neill

2008

[email_address]

Overview Themes & assumptions Types Traits Situation v personality debate Interactionism Strengths & limitations

Themes & assumptions

Types

Traits

Situation v personality debate

Interactionism

Strengths & limitations

1. Themes & assumptions 1. Stable 2. Individual differences 3. Types vs. traits 4. Personality vs. situation

Personality as stability Emphasises human psychology as a function of consistent actions , thoughts , feelings i.e. unpredictability is an exception social psychologists might argue

Emphasises human psychology as a function of consistent actions , thoughts , feelings i.e. unpredictability is an exception

social psychologists might argue

Personality as individual differences Assumes that composition of dispositions varies between people . Unique combinations of stable dispositions within each person.

Assumes that composition of dispositions varies between people .

Unique combinations of stable dispositions within each person.

Types vs. Traits Types = You are a single “type” (or “shape”) of person – there are different main types and sub-types – but you can only be one type. Traits = We each can be described as having varying amounts of several traits (e.g., extraversion, optimism, etc.)‏

Types = You are a single “type” (or “shape”) of person – there are different main types and sub-types – but you can only be one type.

Traits = We each can be described as having varying amounts of several traits (e.g., extraversion, optimism, etc.)‏

Types vs. Traits Traits are now more in favour than types.

Traits are now more in favour than types.

Personality vs. Situation A perennial debate – how much of our behaviour is caused by who were are ( personality ) and how much by the situational influences and demands (norms, culture, etc.)‏ Maybe they work together and it varies? (i nteractionism )‏

A perennial debate – how much of our behaviour is caused by who were are ( personality ) and how much by the situational influences and demands (norms, culture, etc.)‏

Maybe they work together and it varies? (i nteractionism )‏

2. Personality Types Greek 'excesses' Sheldon's somatotypes Recent types

Greek 'excesses'

Sheldon's somatotypes

Recent types

Ancient Greek Humors Ancient Greeks (e.g. Hippocrates, Galen) : 4 types of people: Excess of one of 4 bodily fluids determined personality

Ancient Greeks (e.g. Hippocrates, Galen) : 4 types of people:

Excess of one of 4 bodily fluids determined personality

Ancient Greek Humors Irritable Depressed Optimistic Calm

Sheldon's Somatotypes William Sheldon (1940's) classified body type (somatotype):

William Sheldon (1940's) classified body type (somatotype):

Personality Types - Somatotypes

Types: Recent Individual differences may be qualitative not quantitative Block (1971) identified 5 types. However more recent research suggests 3: Well-adjusted , resilient, adaptable, flexible, resourceful Over-controlling , maladjusted, uptight Under-controlled , maladjusted, impulsive, risky, unsafe

Individual differences may be qualitative not quantitative

Block (1971) identified 5 types. However more recent research suggests 3:

Well-adjusted , resilient, adaptable, flexible, resourceful

Over-controlling , maladjusted, uptight

Under-controlled , maladjusted, impulsive, risky, unsafe

2. Personality Traits

Personality Traits Definition Nomothetic vs. Idiographic Gordon Allport Many trait, single trait, & essential trait approaches Needs (Murray) Cattell (16 PF) Eysenck (3 super-traits) The Big 5

Definition

Nomothetic vs. Idiographic

Gordon Allport

Many trait, single trait, & essential trait approaches

Needs (Murray)

Cattell (16 PF)

Eysenck (3 super-traits)

The Big 5

Personality Traits " enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts ." (DSM-IV)

" enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts ." (DSM-IV)

Personality Traits Distinguishing qualities or characteristics of a person. A readiness to think or act in a similar fashion in response to a variety of different stimuli or situations.

Distinguishing qualities or characteristics of a person.

A readiness to think or act in a similar fashion in response to a variety of different stimuli or situations.

Personality Traits Allport & Odbert (1936) found 17,953 words to describe the way people are psychologically different from each other. e.g. shy, trustworthy, anxious, etc. The trait approach tries to formalise and use descriptive traits to explain and predict behaviour.

Allport & Odbert (1936) found 17,953 words to describe the way people are psychologically different from each other.

e.g. shy, trustworthy, anxious, etc.

The trait approach tries to formalise and use descriptive traits to explain and predict behaviour.

Nomothetic vs. Idiographic Nomothetic: Traits have same psychological meaning in everyone People differ only in amount of each trait Idiographic: Each person has unique psychological structure Some traits possessed by only one person Traits differ in importance from person to person

Nomothetic:

Traits have same psychological meaning in everyone

People differ only in amount of each trait

Idiographic:

Each person has unique psychological structure

Some traits possessed by only one person

Traits differ in importance from person to person

Gordon Allport (1897-1967)‏ Believed in consistent individuality and uniqueness Morphogenic perspective = blend of nomothetic + idiographic perspectives Believed in various traits: individual, common, cardinal, central, secondary, motivational, and stylistic

Believed in consistent individuality and uniqueness

Morphogenic perspective = blend of nomothetic + idiographic perspectives

Believed in various traits:

individual, common, cardinal, central, secondary, motivational, and stylistic

The Many Trait Approach Some theorists look at many traits when investigating personality. Examine correlates of different behaviours to understand personality in greater depth.

Some theorists look at many traits when investigating personality.

Examine correlates of different behaviours to understand personality in greater depth.

The Single Trait Approach Much research focuses on a single trait (its origin, nature, and consequences) Widely studied traits include: Conscientiousness Self-monitoring Authoritarianism

Much research focuses on a single trait (its origin, nature, and consequences)

Widely studied traits include:

Conscientiousness

Self-monitoring

Authoritarianism

Single Trait: e.g. Authoritarianism Widely researched for 50+ years Proposed to lie at heart of racial prejudice. Unthinking, inflexible, submissive, aggressive, power-fascination, cynical, hostile, may be sexually repressed.

Widely researched for 50+ years

Proposed to lie at heart of racial prejudice.

Unthinking, inflexible, submissive, aggressive, power-fascination, cynical, hostile, may be sexually repressed.

The Essential Trait Approach ▼ many traits to essential ones: Murray (1938): 27 “needs” Cattell (1949): 16 traits Eysenck (1960's): 3 supertraits Costa & McCrae (1980's): 5 traits

▼ many traits to essential ones:

Murray (1938): 27 “needs”

Cattell (1949): 16 traits

Eysenck (1960's): 3 supertraits

Costa & McCrae (1980's): 5 traits

Henry Murray (1893 - 1988)‏ Assumption : behaviour is driven by an internal state of disequilibrium Need : internal state of dissatisfaction (desire) ‏

Assumption : behaviour is driven by an internal state of disequilibrium

Need : internal state of dissatisfaction (desire) ‏

Murray (1893 - 1988)‏ Primary (viscerogenic) needs: e.g. food, water, air, sex, avoidance of pain Secondary (psychogenic) needs ( N = 27): e.g. achievement, dominance, affiliation, nurturance

Primary (viscerogenic) needs:

e.g. food, water, air, sex, avoidance of pain

Secondary (psychogenic) needs ( N = 27):

e.g. achievement, dominance, affiliation, nurturance

More recent needs Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation Need for Intimacy

Need for Achievement

Need for Power

Need for Affiliation

Need for Intimacy

Raymond Cattell (1905-1998) Language: Source of info about personality 4,500 words ► 171 trait names Factor analysed self-ratings ► 16 personality factors (16 PF)

Language: Source of info about personality

4,500 words ► 171 trait names

Factor analysed self-ratings

► 16 personality factors (16 PF)

Cattell's 16 Personality Factors Warmth Vigilance Reasoning Abstractness Emotional Stability Privateness Dominance Apprehension Liveliness Openness to Change Rule-Consciousness Self-Reliance Social Boldness Perfectionism Sensitivity Tension

Warmth Vigilance

Reasoning Abstractness

Emotional Stability Privateness

Dominance Apprehension

Liveliness Openness to Change

Rule-Consciousness Self-Reliance

Social Boldness Perfectionism

Sensitivity Tension

Hans Eysenck (1916 -1997)‏ Two supertraits having a biological basis: 1. Introversion-extraversion 2. Emotionality-stability (Neuroticism)‏

Two supertraits having a biological basis:

1. Introversion-extraversion

2. Emotionality-stability (Neuroticism)‏

Hans Eysenck (1916 -1997)‏ 2nd-order FA of 16PF shows two factors: Introversion/extraversion Anxiety (Neuroticism) Psychoticism added later: less researched EPQ (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire)‏

2nd-order FA of 16PF shows two factors:

Introversion/extraversion

Anxiety (Neuroticism)

Psychoticism added later: less researched

EPQ (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire)‏

The Big 5 5 superordinate traits well supported by wide variety of research. Not everyone agrees on the naming of these traits. Commonly measured by “NEO” (Costa & McCrae, 1980s) or IPIP.

5 superordinate traits well supported by wide variety of research.

Not everyone agrees on the naming of these traits.

Commonly measured by “NEO” (Costa & McCrae, 1980s) or IPIP.

The Big 5 The Big 5 according to the “NEO”: N euroticism E xtraversion O penness to Experience A greeableness C onscientiousness Each measured by 6 facets (traits)‏

The Big 5 according to the “NEO”:

N euroticism

E xtraversion

O penness to Experience

A greeableness

C onscientiousness

Each measured by 6 facets (traits)‏

Traits: The Big Five Trait Dimension Description Neuroticism Calm versus anxious (Emotional Stability) Secure versus insecure Self-satisfied versus self-pitying Extraversion Sociable versus retiring Fun-loving versus sober Affectionate versus reserved Openness Imaginative versus practical Preference for variety versus preference for routine Independent versus conforming Agreeableness Soft-hearted versus ruthless Trusting versus suspicious Helpful versus uncooperative Conscientiousness Organized versus disorganized Careful versus careless Disciplined versus impulsive

Deliberation Tender-mindedness Values Positive emotion Vulnerability Self-discipline Modesty Ideas Excitement seeking Impulsiveness Achievement striving Compliance Actions Activity Self-consciousness Dutifulness Altruism Feelings Assertiveness Depression Order Straightforward-ness Aesthetics Gregariousness Angry hostility Competence Trust Fantasy Warmth Anxiety C A O E N

Peabody & Goldberg (1989)‏ Costa & McCrae (1985)‏ Digman (1990)‏ Orgatta (1964)‏ Norman (1963)‏ Fiske (1949)‏ 6 (Authors)‏ WORK LOVE INTELLECT POWER AFFECT Conscientious-ness Agreeableness Openness to experience Extraversion Neuroticism Will to achieve Friendly compliance Intellect Extraversion Neuroticism Responsibility Likeability Intelligence Assertiveness Emotionality Conscientious-ness Agreeableness Culture Surgency Emotionality Will to achieve Conformity Inquiring intellect Social adaptability Emotional control 5 4 3 2 1

6 Factors Personality may be more fully explained by a 6-factor model. The extra 6th factor = Honesty-Humility. The 6-factor model has been labeled the HEXACO model (Lee & Ashton, 2004).

Personality may be more fully explained by a 6-factor model.

The extra 6th factor = Honesty-Humility.

The 6-factor model has been labeled the HEXACO model (Lee & Ashton, 2004).

Trait Stability? Costa et al. (1980):‏ Longitudinal study ► correlations > .70 over time for extraversion & neuroticism Helson et al. (1987; 1993): Women become more dominant, independent, & self-confident over time Individual differences in stability / consistency

Costa et al. (1980):‏

Longitudinal study ► correlations > .70 over time for extraversion & neuroticism

Helson et al. (1987; 1993):

Women become more dominant, independent, & self-confident over time

Individual differences in stability / consistency

4. Situation vs. Personality Debate

Situation vs. Personality Debate Sparked by publication of Mischel’s book Personality and Assessment (1968)‏ Situation Personality

Sparked by publication of Mischel’s book Personality and Assessment (1968)‏

Situation

Personality

Pro-situation 1960s/1970s, evidence suggested low correlation between personality and behaviour (i.e. personality coefficient of approx. .20 to .40)‏ What use are traits if they explain so little of behaviour? Situational variables better predictors? No.

1960s/1970s, evidence suggested low correlation between personality and behaviour (i.e. personality coefficient of approx. .20 to .40)‏

What use are traits if they explain so little of behaviour?

Situational variables better predictors? No.

Pro-personality Low correlations do not prove value of situational variables Much research on ability of traits to predict behavior based on single act/single time People choose situations

Low correlations do not prove value of situational variables

Much research on ability of traits to predict behavior based on single act/single time

People choose situations

5. Interactionism

Interactionism Traits x [Perceived] Situation = Behaviour Complexity: different situations affect different people in different ways Some situations allow expression of personality, others provoke narrower range of behaviour Some individuals more consistent

Traits x [Perceived] Situation = Behaviour

Complexity: different situations affect different people in different ways

Some situations allow expression of personality, others provoke narrower range of behaviour

Some individuals more consistent

Interactionism Traits do not have a constant influence on behaviour...sometimes trait differences matter a lot, sometimes only a little People display traits by choosing situations, not just by reacting to them Person-situation debate has lead to more dynamic approach to understanding how personality traits and situations interact to produce a person’s behaviour

Traits do not have a constant influence on behaviour...sometimes trait differences matter a lot, sometimes only a little

People display traits by choosing situations, not just by reacting to them

Person-situation debate has lead to more dynamic approach to understanding how personality traits and situations interact to produce a person’s behaviour

6. Critique of Dispositional Perspectives

Critique of dispositional perspective: For Useful description and assessment of personality Have some predictive power Although decisions arbitrary, several researchers, using different approaches, coincided in similar views Personality traits useful for research purposes Allows comparison of individual differences & provides an objective, scientific approach

Useful description and assessment of personality

Have some predictive power

Although decisions arbitrary, several researchers, using different approaches, coincided in similar views

Personality traits useful for research purposes

Allows comparison of individual differences & provides an objective, scientific approach

Critique of dispositional perspective: Against Doesn’t explain how or why personality works Poor decisions made on the basis of trait scores? Arbitrary decisions about traits Behaviour is not always consistent Possibly limited predictive ability Little explanation for origins of traits

Doesn’t explain how or why personality works

Poor decisions made on the basis of trait scores?

Arbitrary decisions about traits

Behaviour is not always consistent

Possibly limited predictive ability

Little explanation for origins of traits

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Personality: Theory & Perspectives - Individual ...

Personality: Theory & Perspectives ... Major themes & underlying assumptions of a dispositional approach to personality; ... Perspectives on Personality ...
Read more

Personality/Lectures/Dispositional perspectives - Wikiversity

Sometimes you see the terms “traits” and “dispositions’ used interchangeably. However, the trait perspective is really only a part of the ...
Read more

14. Traits, Types, and Temperament Allport’s Dispositional ...

Allport’s Dispositional Perspective Gordon Allport (1961) claimed that very few people can be ... are basic personality descriptive traits, ...
Read more

DISPOSITIONAL PERSONALITY THEORY - Prezi

Dispositional theory affect individual personality. Dispositional personality affect every one in different ways, by having personality trait and emotions ...
Read more

Theoretical Perspectives: Dispositional ... - blogspot.com

There are many different theories in explaining personality. Dispositional theories explain the relationship between traits and personality. Two ...
Read more

The Dispositional Perspective: Types and Traits

Dispositional Perspective of Gordon Allport P Background P “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical
Read more

Personality Theories: Trait/Dispositional Perspectives ...

2 Definition A trait is any readily-identifiable, stable quality that characterizes an individual from other individuals Traits serve three major functions ...
Read more

Major Themes & Underlying Assumptions of the Dispositional ...

Major Themes & Underlying Assumptions of the Dispositional Approach to Personality ... Introduction to the Dispositional Perspective on Personality
Read more

What are dispositional theories and how do they affect ...

Question - What are dispositional theories and how do they affect individual - NY. Find the answer to this and other Mental Health questions on JustAnswer.
Read more