Published on January 17, 2014
Concept of Personality • The term ‘Personality' has been derived from the Latin term ‘Persona' which means to 'speak through'. • Therefore a very common meaning of the term personality is the role which the person (actor) displays to the public.
A few definitions (4) of personality are as given as: 1. According to Gordon Allport:"Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment. 2. According to Floyd L. Ruch:"Personality includes external appearance and behaviour, inner awareness of self as a permanent organizing force and the particular pattern or organization of measurable traits, both inner and outer. Jayant Isaac,Asso.Profesor –Mkt.,Sys.,& HRM
3. According to Fred Luthans :"Personality means how a person affects others and how he understands and views himself as well as the pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and the person-situation interaction. 4. According to Salvatore Maddi:"Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behaviour (thoughts, feelings and actions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment. Jayant Isaac,Asso.Profesor –Mkt.,Sys.,& HRM
Values & Attitudes in Personality • Perception: A process by which people organize, interpret, experience and process materials received from the external environment. • Values: Individual’s standards or ideas about what a person , object, event or activity ought to be . • Attitudes: Individuals feelings about or inclinations towards other persons ,objects , events or activities. Values Attitudes Perception Wrong Right Personality Jayant Isaac,Asso.Profesor –Mkt.,Sys.,& HRM
1. Locus of Control : Individuals who think that their own actions and behaviors have an impact in determining what happens to them have an internal locus of control. • Individuals who believe that outside forces are largely responsible for their fate have an external locus of control. • Internals are more easily motivated and need less direct supervision than externals. Jayant Isaac,Asso.Profesor –Mkt.,Sys.,& HRM
2. Self Esteem: Self-esteem is the extent to which people have pride in themselves and their capabilities. • Individuals with high self-esteem believe in their abilities and tend to set higher goals and perform more difficult tasks, whereas individuals with low self-esteem are full of self doubt and apprehension. • Still, people with low selfesteem may be just as capable as those with high self-esteem. Jayant Isaac,Asso.Profesor –Mkt.,Sys.,& HRM
Personality Development • • • • • Growth in personal nature. Growth in personal character. Physical and Psychological make-up. Progress, evolution and maturing. Disposition(character) and persona(role) Personality development is a process and not a result, therefore it is continuous………. Jayant Isaac,Asso.Profesor –Mkt.,Sys.,& HRM
Theories of Personality Development 1. The Psychoanalytic Theory 2. Traits Theories – A. Gordon Allport”s trait theory • i. Cardinal traits • ii. Central traits • iii. Secondary traits – B. Raymond Cattell‟s trait theory 3. Self–Theories – A. Self Actualization – B. The self-concept • Self worth (or self-esteem) • Self-image • Ideal self
1. The Psychoanalytic Theory • The Psychoanalytic Theory of personality has held the interest of psychologists and psychiatrists for a long time. • Sigmund Freud, its formulator, was quite an influence. It attends to emphasizes three main issues i.e. the id, the ego and the superego. Psychoanalysts say that all human personality is comprised of these closely integrated functions.
• The id is considered as mostly biological or physical in function -- unfettered, compelling and lacking morality, selfish and intolerant of tension. It functions on the principle of pleasure before anything else. • The ego is the rationally functioning element of human personality. It exerts conscious control, trying always to be the mediator between the id and the superego. Though the id seeks pleasure blindly, based on the pleasure principle, the ego seeks pleasure using rationality instead of irrationality. Its main quirk is rationality, and is always conscious. • The superego represents our moral system. It strives to put a right or wrong tag on our behaviour, often triggering conflict among the three divisions. Its main quirk is morality. The SUPER- Ego is that aspect we present to the "outside" -- it is our persona our celebrity.
2.Trait* theory • Trait theory is the biggest area of research in personality development. Trait theories are therefore, primarily concerned with the differences in people with regards to their own set of personality traits. • We all characterize the traits we see in people all the time, for example we might say, "My father is outgoing, fun-loving, and extremely active for his age." *Traits:- A distinguishing quality or characteristics
(A) Gordon Allport”s trait theory • The psychologist Gordon Allport based his three-tier theory of traits in 1936, when he discovered over 4,000 listed personality traits. Trait categories according to Gordon Allport: • i. Cardinal traits • ii. Central traits • iii. Secondary traits
i. Cardinal traits • Cardinal traits are very dominating traits that characterize a person throughout life. • Many times, people are known by these traits; for example, we often hear people classified as Nerd, bad-tempered, drama queen, and so on. • According to Gordon Allport, these cardinal traits usually develop later on in life.
ii. Central traits • Central traits are not as dominating, yet still basic for most individuals. • To illustrate we can say, a Nerd is a special term often reserved for extremely bright people; however, a central trait would be intelligent and this trait is distributed more evenly among people. • Other central traits would include: honest, shy, anxious, happy, resourceful, etc.
iii. Secondary traits • Secondary traits are traits that appear as a reaction to a situation; but, may not be overly dominating the personality of the person experiencing them. • For example, a person may be impatient waiting in a line, or waiting on someone to call, but that same person may be very patient helping an elderly individual, or helping a child with his or her homework.
(B)Raymond Cattell‟s trait theory • Trait theorist, psychologist, Raymond Cattell, reviewed Allport‘s 4,000 trait list and reduced personality traits to 171. • He eliminated most uncommon traits in favor of traits commonly found among most humans. He utilized what is known as a factor analysis and by combining traits with striking similarities; he further reduced the number of traits down to 16. • He is known for his famous, Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) which is widely used as a personality test worldwide.
16 personality dimensions described by Cattell. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Abstractedness: Imaginative versus practical Apprehension: Worried versus confident Dominance: Forceful versus submissive Emotional Stability: Calm versus high strung Liveliness: Spontaneous versus restrained Openness to Change: Flexible versus attached to the familiar Perfectionism: Controlled versus undisciplined Privateness: Discreet versus open Reasoning: Abstract versus concrete Rule Consciousness: Conforming versus non-conforming Self-Reliance: Self-sufficient versus dependent Sensitivity: Tender-hearted versus tough-minded. Social Boldness: Uninhibited versus shy Tension: Impatient versus relaxed Vigilance: Suspicious versus trusting Warmth: Outgoing versus reserved
Self–Theories • Carl Rogers was a humanistic psychologist agreed with most of what Maslow believed, but added that for a person to "grow", they need an environment that provides them with genuineness (openness and selfdisclosure), acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and empathy (being listened to and understood). • According to Rogers basic ingredients of personality: – A. Self Actualization – B. The self-concept • Self worth (or self-esteem) • Self-image • Ideal self
A. Self Actualization • Carl Rogers believed that humans have one basic motive that is the tendency to self-actualize - i.e. to fulfil one's potential and achieve the highest level of 'human-being-ness' we can. • Like a flower that will grow to its full potential if the conditions are right, but which is constrained by its environment, so people will flourish and reach their potential if their environment is good enough.
B. The self-concept • Self-concept is defined as "the organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself". • The self is the humanistic term for who we really are as a person. The self is influenced by the experiences a person has in their life, and out interpretations of those experiences. • Two primary sources that influence our self-concept are childhood experiences and evaluation by others. The self-concept includes three components: Self worth (or self-esteem) , Self-image , Ideal self
• Self worth (or self-esteem) – what we think about ourselves. Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed in early childhood and were formed from the interaction of the child with the mother and father. • Self-image – How we see ourselves, which is important to good psychological health. Self-image includes the influence of our body image on inner personality. At a simple level, we might perceive ourselves as a good or bad person, beautiful or ugly. Self-image has an effect on how a person thinks feels and behaves in the world. • Ideal self – This is the person who we would like to be. It consists of our goals and ambitions in life, and is dynamic – i.e. forever changing. The ideal self in childhood is not the ideal self in our teens or late twenties etc.
Perception • Perception is the process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world. • Sensation usually refers to the immediate, relatively unprocessed result of stimulation of sensory receptors in the eyes, ears, nose, tongue or skin. • Perception, on the other hand, better describes one‘s ultimate experience of the world and typically involves further processing of sensory input. • In practice, sensation and perception are virtually impossible to separate, because they are part of one continuous process.
Nature of perception • The following ideas clarify the nature of perception: 1. Perception is the process by which an individual gives meaning to the environment. 2. People‘s actions, emotions, thoughts and feelings are triggered by their perceptions of their surroundings. 3. Perception is an almost automatic process and works in the same way within each individual.
ATTITUDE • An attitude is a – Mental stage of readiness – Learned and organized through experience – Exerting a specific influence on a person’s response to people, objects, and situations with which it is related. • “A persistent* tendency to feel and behave in a particular way toward some object.” Jayant Isaac,Asso.Profesor –Mkt.,Sys.,& HRM *never-ceasing
COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE 1.Attitudes are evaluative statements that are either favorable or unfavorable concerning objects , people, or events. 2.Attitudes are not the same as values, but the two are interrelated. 3. Three components of an attitude: – Cognition(psychological feature) – Affect – Behavior • The belief that “discrimination is wrong” is a value statement and an example of the cognitive component of an attitude. • If someone purposefully do discrimination it is an example of the affect component of attitude. • And if someone has the nature of discrimination it is an example of the behavior component of attitude. Jayant Isaac,Asso.Profesor –Mkt.,Sys.,& HRM
Factors in Attitude formation 1. Group Factors: 1. Family 2. Reference groups 3. Social Class 2. Personality Factors Jayant Isaac,Asso.Profesor –Mkt.,Sys.,& HRM
Attitudes relevant for OB • As discussed earlier that people develop attitude towards other persons, objects and ideas. • The important attitude towards the following aspects related to the behavior of employees in the organization are: – Job Satisfaction – Job involvement – Organizational Commitment Jayant Isaac,Asso.Profesor –Mkt.,Sys.,& HRM
JOB SATISFACTION • Definition: It is an individual’s general attitude toward his/her job. • A high level of job satisfaction equals positive attitudes toward the job and vice versa. • Employee attitudes and job satisfaction are frequently used interchangeably. • Often when people speak of “employee attitudes” they mean “employee job satisfaction.” Jayant Isaac,Asso.Profesor –Mkt.,Sys.,& HRM
Job satisfaction • Job satisfaction is the collection of feelings and beliefs people have about their current jobs. • In addition to attitudes about a job as a whole, people can have attitudes about various aspects of their jobs, such as the kind of work, co-workers, or pay. • Job satisfaction is an important work attitude in organizational behavior because it affects a wide range of behaviors and contributes to workers’ well-being Jayant Isaac,Asso.Profesor –Mkt.,Sys.,& HRM
Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance • Satisfaction and Productivity • Satisfaction and Absenteeism • Satisfaction and Employee Turnover Jayant Isaac,Asso.Profesor –Mkt.,Sys.,& HRM
Attitudes Associated with Job Satisfaction • Job Satisfaction represents several related attitudes. – – – – – The work itself Pay Promotion opportunities Supervision Coworkers • Outcomes of Job Satisfaction – – – – Satisfaction and Productivity Satisfaction and Turnover Satisfaction and Absenteeism Satisfaction and Citizenship Behavior Jayant Isaac,Asso.Profesor –Mkt.,Sys.,& HRM
Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction 1.Evidence indicates that satisfied customer satisfaction and loyalty. employees increase 2.Customer retention and defection are highly dependent on how front-line employees deal with customers. Satisfied employees are more likely to be friendly, upbeat, and responsive. Customers appreciate that. 3.Dissatisfied customers can also increase an employee’s dissatisfaction. The more employees work with rude and thoughtless customers, the more likely they are to be dissatisfied. Jayant Isaac,Asso.Profesor –Mkt.,Sys.,& HRM
Organizational Commitment • Definition: A state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. • Research evidence demonstrates relationships between organizational commitment and both absenteeism and turnover. • An individual’s level of organizational commitment is a better indicator of turnover than the far more frequently used job satisfaction predictor because it is a more global and enduring response to the organization as a whole than is job satisfaction. Jayant Isaac,Asso.Profesor –Mkt.,Sys.,& HRM
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