personalised medicines

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Information about personalised medicines
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Published on June 24, 2018

Author: safiyamirzabegum

Source: authorstream.com

Slide 1: Presented by:- Safiya Mirza FLOW OF PRESENTATION:-: FLOW OF PRESENTATION:- Definition Introduction of personalised medicines Pharmacogenetics Genes I and II Biomarkers Case study Examples Benefits to patients Benefits to health care system Category of pateints for PM Drug delivery system Approaches Procedure Slide 3: DEFINITION Personalized medicine , sometimes referred to as precision or individualized medicine or customised medicines is an emerging field of medicine that uses diagnostic tools to identify specific biological markers, often genetic, to help assess which medical treatments and procedures will be best for each patient. INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION The term personalized medicine first appeared in published works in 1999, however some of the field’s core concepts have been in existence since the early 1960s (Jain 2002). The advent of new technologies has now made personalized medicine a more tangible reality. Personalized health care is a broad term for interventions that are targeted to individuals based on their risk in order to provide a more coherent and focused approach to health care. Personalized health care includes preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions, with risk defined through genetics as well as clinical and family histories. It is a medical procedure that separates patients into different groups—with medical decisions, practices, interventions and/or products being tailored to the individual patient based on their predicted response or risk of disease • More technology-focused definition relies on use of molecular testing to define risk, e.g., genetics, genomics, proteomics, metabolomics , etc. • Goals include greater effectiveness and efficiency of health care delivery as well as improved health outcomes and quality of life. Slide 6: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TREATMENTS PERSONALISED MEDICINES: PERSONALISED MEDICINES …. about making the treatment as individualized as the disease . … a young but rapidly advancing field. … the ability to predict an individual's susceptibility to diseases. … the use of new methods of molecular analysis. IS As we know…: As we know… …people vary from one another in many ways: THE PERSON What they eat exposure to environmental factors Types and amount of stress they experience Their DNA Many of these variations play a role in health and disease PM INVOLVES IDENTIFYING:: PM INVOLVES IDENTIFYING: ALLOWS genetic information genomic information clinical information developing disease predictions to be made about a person's susceptibility of : its response to treatment course of disease PHARMACOGENETICS: PHARMACOGENETICS Pharmacogenetics  is the study of inherited genetic differences in drug metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs, both in terms of therapeutic effect as well as adverse effects. Pharmacogenomics  is the study of how genes affect a person's response to drugs. This relatively new field combines pharmacology (the science of drugs) and genomics (the study of genes and their functions) to develop effective, safe medications and doses that will be tailored to a person's genetic makeup. PM is not "genetic medicine"!: PM is not "genetic medicine"! Genetics,is a field more than 50 years old, is the study of heredity. It examines individual genes and their effects as they relate to biology and medicine. Genetic tests already in use to predict patient response to therapy in the fields of cancer and infectious disease In PM we study DNA polymorphisms It is the natural variations in our genes that plays a role in our risk of getting or not getting certain diseases. The combination of these variations across several genes affects each individual’s risk. Natural genetic variations also are part of the reason … : Natural genetic variations also are part of the reason … … the same drug works well in one individual and not another. DNA polymorphism leads to differences in: how drugs are by the body used metabolized absorbed Genes (I): Genes (I) Give a rise to proteins that play key roles in biological processes In rare instances, one single mutated or malfunctioning gene leads to a distinct genetic disease or syndrome. Such disorders are termed “monogenic ”. The most familiar of these rare disorders include sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis. Genes (II): Genes (II) Also multiple genes can influence the development of many common and complex diseases, as well as a response to the pharmaceuticals designed to treat them. The contribution of several genes to these complex disorders is termed “polygenic. AS A RESULT- … one disease can be reclassified as several different diseases, each of which might respond to a different treatment. Such disease complexity exists for asthma and many forms of cancer. Molecular analysis of “biomarkers” : Molecular analysis of “biomarkers” Biomarkers - are biological molecules that are associated with a presence of certain disease state and its severity. It’s analysis can help classify: sub-types within a disease sub-groups of patients who have the same molecular variation of the disease Slide 17: Cytochrome P450 Important drug metabolozing enzymes Bioactivation and metabolism of approximately 75% of drugs gives CYPs prominence in pharmacogenetics research Slide 18: EXAMPLES OF PERSONALISED MEDICINES Slide 19: The promise of personalized medicine is to get the right treatment to the right patient at the right dose the first time through the use of molecular biomarker tests and targeted therapies. CATEGORY OF PATIENTS FOR PERSONALISED MEDICINES: CATEGORY OF PATIENTS FOR PERSONALISED MEDICINES Finding right people to benefit from genetic medicines , improve disease management and lower health care cost Slide 23: DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM Slide 24: EXAMPLES Slide 25: VEMURAFENIB AND DABRAFENIB Using natural genetic variations PM aims …: Using natural genetic variations PM aims … to tackle more complex diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes Believed to be influenced primarily by environmental factors and their interaction with the human genome. … and to develop new safe and effective treatments for genetically defined subgroups of patients. Slide 29: PROCEDURE CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION It classify the patients into groups to get suitable therapy. It reduced the adverse drug reactions. Each patient benefits from individualised treatment. REFERENCES: REFERENCES 1.http:// personalizedmedicine.ufhealth.org / patientcare / uf -health-clinical-services-patient-resources/introduction-to-personalized-medicine/ 2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personalized_medicine/ 3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2781211/ 4.http:// jdc.jefferson.edu / cgi / viewcontent.cgi?article =1826&context= hpn / 5.http:// www.sciencedirect.com /science/article/ pii /S0378517315304622/ 6. https://www.slideshare.net/micheldumontier/personalized-medicine-5853949/ 7. http://www.feinsteininstitute.org/programs-researchers/bioelectronic-medicine/ Slide 32: 8. file:///D:/Drug%20delivery%20system/chart_pack-value_of_personalized_medicine.pdf 9. file:///D:/Drug%20delivery%20system/ESMO-Patient-Guide-Personalised-Cancer-Medicine.pdf 10. file:///D:/Drug%20delivery%20system/pharmacogenomics.pdf 11. file:///D:/Drug%20delivery%20system/pmc_the_case_for_personalized_medicine.pdf 12. file:///D:/Drug%20delivery%20system/ppts/carlson-1233737980632432-1.pdf 13. file:///D:/Drug%20delivery%20system/ppts/personalizedmedicine-130705000443-phpapp01.pdf 14. file:///D:/Drug%20delivery%20system/ppts/personalizedmedicine-150428233216-conversion-gate01.pdf Slide 33: From: - SAFIYA BEGUM

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