Person perception

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Information about Person perception

Published on January 17, 2008

Author: Marcell


Person Perception:  Person Perception Our Knowledge of People Asch Procedure 1:  Asch Procedure 1 Kind Slide3:  Kind Energetic Slide4:  Kind Energetic Competitive Slide5:  Kind Energetic Competitive Intelligent Industrious Slide6:  Industrious Intelligent Competitive Energetic Kind Central Versus Peripheral Traits:  Central Versus Peripheral Traits Intelligent Skillful Industrious Warm Determined Practical Cautious Slide8:  Intelligent Skillful Industrious Cold Determined Practical Cautious Central Vs Peripheral and Inferences:  Central Vs Peripheral and Inferences 91% of Subjects Told Person is Warm Infer Person is Generous Only 9% Told Person is Cold Infer Generous Peripheral Traits:  Peripheral Traits Intelligent Skillful Industrious Polite Determined Practical Cautious Slide11:  Intelligent Skillful Industrious Blunt Determined Practical Cautious Peripheral Inferences:  Peripheral Inferences 87% of Subjects Told Person Is Polite Infer Person is Good-natured But 56% Of Those Told Person Is Blunt Infer Good-Natured Implicit Personality Theory:  Implicit Personality Theory Asch -- Inferences Wishner – Correlations Shweder – Semantic Similarity Kelley’s Attribution Theory:  Kelley’s Attribution Theory Key Question: Internally or Externally Causes? Three Kinds of Evidence Consensus Consistency Distinctiveness Kinds of Evidence:  Kinds of Evidence Consistency: Does the Person Do The Same Thing Each Time? Consensus: Does Everybody Do It? Distinctiveness: Is Response Unique to That Stimulus? Claire Laugh’s at a Comedian:  Claire Laugh’s at a Comedian Is it something about the comedian or about Claire? Does she always laugh at him? Do other people laugh at him? Does she laugh only at him? If all are Yes, then external cause – the comedian Jones and Davis’ Attribution Theory:  Jones and Davis’ Attribution Theory Correspondent Inferences The more desirable consequences there are for an act the less certain one should be that any one of them was the cause of the person’s behavior. Your Partner Follows You to San Francisco:  Your Partner Follows You to San Francisco Near You Great Weather Beauty of the Bay Great Food Close to Wine Country Prestige Challenge High salary Pacific Coast Highway Victorian Homes Coffee Houses China Town North Beach Berkeley Pebble Beach Your Partner Follows You to Cleveland:  Your Partner Follows You to Cleveland Near You Sub-Mariner Study:  Sub-Mariner Study Actors and Observers:  Actors and Observers Observers’ Predictions:  Observers’ Predictions Observers’ Predictions and Actors’ Expectations:  Observers’ Predictions and Actors’ Expectations Jones and Harris Study:  Jones and Harris Study Fundamental Attributional Error:  Fundamental Attributional Error The Tendency To Attribute Behavior to Personality (Internal Factors, Dispositions) When It Should Be Attributed To The Situation (External Factors). Ross et al. Quizmaster Study:  Ross et al. Quizmaster Study Fundamental Attributional Error Summary:  Fundamental Attributional Error Summary The Fundamental Attributional Error Occurs Unless People Are Suspicious of an Ulterior Motive Ulterior Motives and Attributions:  Ulterior Motives and Attributions Fundamental Attributional Error Summary:  Fundamental Attributional Error Summary People are Suspicious of an Ulterior Motive The Essay Writer Mentions Constraints in the Essay The Writer Distances Self from Essay Biases – Self and Other 1:  Biases – Self and Other 1 Biases – Self and Other 2:  Biases – Self and Other 2 Flaws and Biases:  Flaws and Biases Egocentric Bias:  Egocentric Bias Better Than Average Effect:  Better Than Average Effect Better than Average Effect Results:  Better than Average Effect Results Mean Self Rating (Positive) = 6.44 (vs 5) Mean Self Rating (Negative) = 3.64 (vs 5) 79/91 rate self as better than average Criticisms of Attribution Theory:  Criticisms of Attribution Theory Are Situational and Dispositional Accounts Competing Explanations? Are People Interested in Causes or in Responsibility? Do The Experiments Work By Violating Grice’s Maxims? Grice’s Maxims:  Grice’s Maxims Relevance Say Only Relevant Things Quantity Only as Much Detail as Listener Needs Quality Say Only What You Have Reason To Believe Directness Don’t Beat Around The Bush President Rodin:  President Rodin I saw President Rodin This Morning and She Was Sober Process Models:  Process Models Process Model of Attribution:  Process Model of Attribution Characterize the Act Characterize the Actor In The Same Terms Search for Situational Factors Recharacterize the Actor Cognitive Schemata:  Cognitive Schemata Control Attention Control Interpretation Control Memory Activation Schemata Affect Act-Characterization:  Schemata Affect Act-Characterization Schema Incongruity and Recall:  Schema Incongruity and Recall During CONSTRUCTI0N of a Schema,Schema Incongruent Information is Remembered Better Once a Schema Is Established. Schema Congruent Information is Remembered Better Schemata Can Be Primed Implicitly:  Schemata Can Be Primed Implicitly Subjects primed with: Adventurous, self-confident, independent, and persistent Interpret mountain-climbing as adventurous Subjects primed with: reckless, aloof, conceited, and stubborn Interpret mountain-climbing as reckless Dual-Representation Theory:  Dual-Representation Theory When given information about someone: People Retain the Information and Update their Overall Impressions. Consequences of Dual Representation:  Consequences of Dual Representation 1) There can be a disjunction between information recalled and General Impression 2) Very difficult to remove effects of mistaken or misinterpreted information

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