Published on March 9, 2014
Periworkout Nutrition Andrew Berry firstname.lastname@example.org www.bodyberry.com
Contents • • • • • • • • Periworkout Nutrition My Diets Explained Pre Post During Supplements Questions References
What is Periworkout Nutrition • This is the time of and around your training sessions. In terms of meals, it is the meal you consume pre, during and post exercise. • The choices you make can enhance or deter our desired training effect. • While periworkout nutrition is extremely important, it is only a part of your nutrition plan as a whole.
My Diets Explained • Goal: gain lean muscle mass while maintaining or losing current body fat. Assumuption: training in evening. • Harness the anabolic power or insulin by: – Majority of carbs around training time to amplify the anabolic effect that training plus nutrients have on your body. – Carbohydrate-free meals earlier in the day for enhanced fat loss. • Improved clarity, mood and cognition especially earlier in the day. • Better sleep due to the increased serotonin release closer to bedtime. • Don’t think of your workout as a time to burn fat. It’s the time to stimulate muscle growth.
Insulin Insulin Sensitivity?
My Diets Explained • Majority of carbs around training time to amplify the anabolic effect that training, increased insulin sensitivity, plus nutrients have on your body. – GLUT- glucose transporters. Glucose transporters are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate glucose uptake though the plasma membrane. There are several classes, stimulated be several things. (Insulin—G-coupled protein—adenylate cyclase—cAMP activation etc.) – Increased GLUT4 activity due to increased insulin action. (1)(2) – Increased GLUT4 activity due to muscular contraction.(3,4,5)
Insulin Mediated GLUT4 Translocation
Contraction Mediated GLUT4 Translocation
Insulin Action on HSL • Carbohydrate-free meals earlier in the day for enhanced fat loss. – Carbs cause insulin secretion. Insulin deactivates the enzyme hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) (6)
Diets Continued • Improved clarity, mood and cognition. – Studies show that a lower glycemic meal such as one without carbohydrates has positive effects on both mood and cognitive thinking when it comes to working memory and speed of processing. (13,14) Especially earlier in the day. – High glycemic meals call for an increased insulin response. Due to the increased insulin sensitivity of muscle and fat cells in the morning, insulin will “over clear” the blood stream of glucose leading to a state called transient hypoglycemia. This is where your blood sugar dips below the normal amount and leaves you feeling tired for a little while until you eat again. By keeping your blood sugar stable with meals of proteins, healthy fats and veggies you avoid these ups and downs in energy while burning more fat!
Diets Continued • Better sleep with increased serotonin release closer to bedtime due to the intake of carbs later in the day. (9) Tryp = tryptophan
Cardio.. Don’t interfere with mTOR • Don’t think of your workout as a time to burn fat. It’s the time to stimulate muscle growth. Fat loss will accompany due to increased metabolism and metabolic efficiency. – mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) is a serine/threonine protein kinase reaction that regulates cell growth, proliferation, motility, survival and…PROTEIN SYNTHESIS! – mTOR is activated via: • mechanical stress (from heavy training loads) • growth factors (IGF, growth hormone, insulin, etc) • amino acids (particularly leucine- BCAA’s) – Separate your cardio and training sessions as far apart as possible for maximum gains. – Metabolic stress from cardio leads to persistent AMPK (adenosine monophosphate kinase) activation. Think of this as metabolic stress that will interfere with mTOR and your muscle gains. (10,11)
Sum it Up • Prioritize your carb intake around your training to maximize the anabolic effects of insulin. • Keep carbs out of the meals furthest away from training to maximize fat loss periods. • Keep cardio as far away as possible from your training time so as not to impede your muscle and strength gains.
Pre-Workout • A pre workout meal or shake can provide your body with the macronutrients that you need to have an intense, high energy and productive workout. The preworkout meal should include protein, carbohydrates and a small amount of fat. – Carbs give your body a ready source of energy for ATP production for repeated bouts of muscular contraction. They also spare glycogen usage. – Proteins are broken down into amino acids to join the AA pool to be used to rebuild broken muscle tissue – Fat is important for slowing the rate of digestion so that glucose does not enter the blood stream too quickly leading to hyperglycemia and then shortly after transient hypoglycemia. • The source of this meal should be determined by how far out from the training session the meal is to be consumed. Eating too close to your training session will cause blood to rush to the gut to aid in nutrient transport and digestion, depriving blood from entering the muscle tissue. You will experience cramping and bloat. – 2-3 hours out: steak and potato. There would be adequate time to digest this meal before training. – 1 hour or less out: whey protein isolate, cream of rice cereal (or oatmeal) and peanut butter. This meal is easy to digest and is “light” on the stomach.
Post-Workout • After a hard training session you have broken down muscle tissue and depleted muscular and hepatic glycogen stores. It’s important to start the rebuilding process within the first hour. • Anabolic Window- does exist. Countless studies show that proper protein and carbohydrate intake in the time immediately post-exercise leads to significant gains in lean body mass, total body mass, muscle cross sectional area, glycogen repletion and overall recovery. • (12, 13,14, 15,16)
Post-Workout • Depending on your protocol (intra-nutrition vs. not). – If you consume an intra shake then eating immediately is not as important. Just wait until hungry. This meal can be more “solid” like beef and rice, chicken and potato, egg and oats, or even kids cereal and whey isolate. – If you don’t consume an intra shake then it is important to eat immediately. You want something that is digested quickly such as • Protein- whey isolate or hydrolysate, free form aminos • Carbs- pretty much anything that is low in fat. Rice, potatoes, cereal, pop-tarts, whatever.
During • For the advanced, who train hard with high volume. • Reasons: increased nutrient uptake due to more blood flow to peripheral tissue. • Increased Muscle protein synthesis due to keeping insulin high + amino acid availability. • Muscle Gain = MPS - MPB • Works best with high volume workouts • Specific types of protein and carbs. Not just anything will do. • Some just BCAA’s
Highly Branched Cyclic Dextrin & Casein Hydrolysate • Highly Branched Cyclic Dextrin- high molecular weight carbohydrate (1x 106 grams/mole) which is much higher than glucose (180 g/mol) or even waxy maize starch (200,000 g/mol). This increases a property called osmolarity (grams of solute/L of solution). Osmolarity is the measurement of the number of particles in a solution. This is beneficial to us because the osmotic pressure that HBCD exhibits is lower than that of the blood and other tissues. This creates a hypotonic environment allowing the material to bypass the stomach and digestive system at a much faster rate than other carbohydrates. Since there is no digestion taking place, no blood is sequestered from the exercising tissue. (17, 18)(25-75 grams during) • Casein Hydrolysate- hydrolysates are almost fully digested and have a high concentration of di and tri-peptides. These are absorbed faster then even free form amino acids. (19,20) (10-40 grams during)
Highly Branched Cyclic Dextrin & Casein Hydrolysate Hydrolysates: Di and tri-peptides Increased: Recovery Muscle Gain Metabolic efficiency Performance (
Supplements • I don’t like a lot of supplements but use a few research supported aids. • BCAA’s (branched chain amino acids) • Creatine • Beta-alanine • Highly Branched Cyclic Dextrin* • Casein Hydrolysate* • *Covered in During • Preworkouts? I don’t love them due to body becoming addicted easily as well as adrenal burnout from taking them habitually.
BCAA’s • BCAA’s - Leucine, isoleucine and valine. – Metabolized in muscle and liver. (5-15 grams before/during) • • Anti-catabolic by providing carbon as direct energy source when oxidized in muscle tissue. Exercise promotes increased BCAA oxidation. Adding BCAA’s provide a substrate for glucose homeostasis by providing substrates for the citric-acid cycle and gluconeogenesis. (22,23,24) Anabolic via mTOR stimulation via Leucine. (25)
Creatine and Beta-Alanine • Creatine- many forms (monohydrate, malate, etc.) Energy recycler. ADP + CrP = ATP. Aids in muscle gain, energy and cell volumization. The only population that is deficient would probably be teenage, female vegetarians. (26) (5-110 grams) • Beta-Alanine- Once ingested BA bonds with the amino acid histidine via the enzyme carnosine synthetase to make carnosine. Carnosine is an intracellular H+ ion buffer. When we exercise H+ ions build up due to ATP breakdown leading to a hyperacidic intracellular environment AKA the burn. BA buffers this acidic buildup allowing you to train harder, longer. (27) (3 grams)
Questions? • TrueNutrition.com (use code AWB970- 5% off) – Highly Branched Cyclic Dextrin- add electrolytes. This is important due to the action of Na+/K+ ATPase complex. • also found in Gaspari’s Glycofuse – Pepto Pro (Casein Hydrolysate) – For other supplements, shop around. I like to look for bulk powders on ebay and Amazon.
References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Mikines, KJ, B. Sonne, PA Farrell, B. Tronier, and H. Galbo. “Effect of Physical Exercise on Sensitivity and Responsiveness to Insulin in Humans.” American Journal of Physiology 1st ser. 254.3 (1988): 248-59. Pubmed.gov. Web. 27 Nov. 2013. Hawley, J. A., and S. J. Lessard. “Exercise Training-induced Improvements in Insulin Action.” Acta Physiologica 192.1 (2008): 127-35. Print. Goodyear, PhD, Laurie J., and Barbara B. Kahn, MD. “Exercise, Glucose Transport, And Insulin Sensitivity.” Annual Review of Medicine 49.1 (1998): 235-61. Print.. Hansen, P. A., L. A. Nolte, J. O. Holloszy, and M. M. Chen. “Increased GLUT-4 Translocation Mediates Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity of Muscle Glucose Transport after Exercise.” Journal of Applied Physiology 85.4 (1998): 1218-222. Oct. 1998. Web. 5 Dec. 2013. Lauritzen HP, Galbo H, Toyoda T, Goodyear LJ. Kinetics of contraction-induced GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle fibers from living mice. Diabetes 59: 2134–2144, 2010. Meijssen, S. “Insulin Mediated Inhibition of Hormone Sensitive Lipase Activity in Vivo in Relation to Endogenous Catecholamines in Healthy Subjects.” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 86.9 (2001): 4193-197. Pubmed.gov. Web. 1 Dec. 2013. Cheatham, RA, SB Roberts, SK Das, and CH Gilhooly. “Long-term Effects of Provided Low and High Glycemic Load Low Energy Diets on Mood and Cognition.”Physiology and Behavior 98.3 (2009): 374-79. 7 Sept. 2009. Web. 27 Nov. 2013
References 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Halyburton AK, Brinkworth GD, Wilson CJ,, AK, GD Brinkworth, and CJ Wilson. “Low- and Highcarbohydrate Weight-loss Diets Have Similar Effects on Mood but Not Cognitive Performance.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86.3 (2007): 580-87. Web. 27 Nov. 2013. Wurtman, Richard J., and Judith J. Wurtman. "Brain Serotonin, Carbohydrate-Craving, Obesity and Depression." Obesity Research 3.S4 (1995): 477S-80S. Print. Thomson DM, Gordon SE. Diminished overload-induced hypertrophy in aged fast-twitch skeletal muscle is associated with AMPK hyperphosphorylation. J Appl Physiol 2005;98:557-64 Hickson RC. Interference of strength development by simultaneously training for strength and endurance. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1980;45:255-63. Cribb PJ, Hayes A. Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(11):1918–25 Esmarck B, Andersen JL, Olsen S, Richter EA, Mizuno M, Kjaer M. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans. J Physiol. 2001;535(Pt 1):301–11. Willoughby DS, Stout JR, Wilborn CD. Effects of resistance training and protein plus amino acid supplementation on muscle anabolism, mass, and strength. Amino Acids. 2007;32(4):467–77
References 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Hulmi JJ, Kovanen V, Selanne H, Kraemer WJ, Hakkinen K, Mero AA. Acute and long-term effects of resistance exercise with or without protein ingestion on muscle hypertrophy and gene expression. Amino Acids. 2009;37(2):297–308. Ivy, JL. "Regulation of Muscle Glycogen Repletion, Muscle Protein Synthesis and Repair Following Exercise." Journal of Sports, Science and Medicine 3.3 (2004): 131-38. Print. Takii, H., Y. Takii (Nagao), T. Kometani, T. Nishimura, T. Nakae, T. Kuriki, and T. Fushiki. "Fluids Containing a Highly Branched Cyclic Dextrin Influence the Gastric Emptying Rate." International Journal of Sports Medicine 26.4 (2005): 314-19. Print. Takii, Hiroshi, Kengo Ishihara, Takashi Kometani, Shigetaka Okada, and Tohru Fushiki. "Enhancement of Swimming Endurance in Mice by Highly Branched Cyclic Dextrin." Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 63.12 (1999): 2045-052. Print. Manninen, AH. "Protein Hydrolysates in Sports and Exercise: A Brief Review." Journal of Sports, Science and Medicine 3.2 (2004): 60-63. Print Silk, D., P. Fairclough, M. Clark, J. Hegarty, T. Marrs, J. Addison, D. Burston, K. Clegg, and D. Matthews. "Use of a Peptide Rather than Free Amino Acid Nitrogen Source in Chemically Defined "elemental" Diets." Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 4.6 (1980): 548-53. Print. Saunders, MJ, and RW Moore. "Carbohydrate and Protein Hydrolysate Coingestions Improvement of Late-exercise Time-trial Performance." International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 19.2 (2009): 136-49. Print.
References 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. Shimomura, Yoshiharu, and Yuko Yamamoto. "Nutraceutical Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acids on Skeletal Muscle." The Journal of Nutrition 136.2 (2006): 5295-325. Print. Harper AE, Miller RH, Block KP. Branched-chain amino acid metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr. 1984;4:409–54 Rennie MJ. Influence of exercise on protein and amino acid metabolism. In: Rowell LB, Shepherd JT, editors. Handbook of physiology, section 12: exercise: regulation and integration of multiple systems. New York: Oxford University Press; 1996. p. 995–1035. Blomstrand, E., and J. Eliasson. "Branched-chain Amino Acids Activate Key Enzymes in Protein Synthesis after Physical Exercise." The Journal of Nutrition 136.1 (2006): 269-73. Print. Rawson, Eric S., and Jeff S. Volek. "Effects of Creatine Supplementation and Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Weightlifting Performance." Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 17.4 (2003): 822-31. Print. Artioli, GG, and B. Gualano. "Role of Beta-alanine Supplementation on Muscle Carnosine and Exercise Performance." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 42.6 (2010): 1162-173. Web
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