Periodisation for Sport

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Information about Periodisation for Sport

Published on October 31, 2008

Author: markmckean


Periodisation for Sport : Periodisation for Sport Mark McKean Dip.T (HPE/Sc), CSCS, Level 2 ASCA, MAAESS, PhD Candidate Understanding Physical Capacities : Understanding Physical Capacities The athletic performance graph Sports different qualities – Bompa’s triangle of abilities Quantifying the Six ‘S’ of training Slide 3: Time of Effort Intensity of Effort Current Curve Aim of Curve with S&C Strength & Conditioning Curve The Athletic Performance Graph : The Athletic Performance Graph Aim of any athletic program is to improve performance measure the physical capacities understand the energy systems contribution to performance understand how to influence specific energy systems compare and plot the results Sports Require Different Qualities : Sports Require Different Qualities Each sport has many requirements in order to perform well Bompa triangle of physical needs 6 ‘S’ of training – stamina, strength, speed, skill, suppleness, stance Slide 6: 3 1 2 E ST SP Basics of Strength : Basics of Strength Physiological influences – fibre type, other tissue, contraction speed, Mechanical influences – lever length, body frame, muscle mass, body mass Strength is the base for all fitness Strength influences all other capacities Basics of Speed : Basics of Speed Physiological influences – fibre type, training, current capacities, contraction speed, Mechanical influences – lever length, body frame, muscle mass, body mass, skill level, reflex/reaction times Speed is required in all sports Speed before endurance or vice versa Neural drive development and age dependency Basics of Skill : Basics of Skill Time to develop skills – training age of athlete Level of skills required – tennis to marathon running Type of skills required – open/closed Ability to develop new skills Ability to correct poor skills Time spent in skill versus training Basics of Stamina : Basics of Stamina Aerobic versus anaerobic development What comes first aerobic base or anaerobic base? Time spent to develop aerobic capacities Age of athlete and volume of aerobic work Basics of Suppleness : Basics of Suppleness Level and type of flexibility required Time spent to develop flexibility Different flexibility methods to develop Interference or improvement in performance of skill? When to stretch and when not to! Stiffy V floppy? (Anna-Louise Bouvier) Basics of Stance : Basics of Stance What is ideal posture? How does posture influence other physical qualities? Skill development with good posture The ‘chicken or the egg’ syndrome – posture or the conditioning? Training Age : Training Age Training to train Training to compete Training to win 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 + Stages General Specific Initial Specialised Perfection High perf Single Periodisation Double periodisation Multiple periodisation One competitive period Two C. P Three or more C. P It takes 10-12 years to develop an athlete fully Both physical and mental training should go hand in hand Stages Of Athletic Development : Stages Of Athletic Development Train to train Training – 75% Competition – 25% Train to compete Training – 55% Competition – 45% Train to win Training – 40% Competition – 60% (Istvan Bayli 1995) The Periodised Plan : The Periodised Plan Blocking training into more manageable units Allows you to quantify training in each phase Set specific goals for different phases Measure outcomes from different phases Allocate time for interaction of all components Language Of Planning : Language Of Planning Annual plan/Mesocycle - a training plan for one year Macrocycle - a block of training (2-6 weeks) within one phase of training Microcycle - the weekly training program (generally one week but can be any combination of days not necessarily seven) Interference - the effect that one aspect of training may have on another aspect of training, when those components are trained concurrently. Training phase - includes general prep, specific prep, pre comp, main comp, transition. Phases Of A Periodised Plan : Phases Of A Periodised Plan General preparatory phase - Specific preparatory phase - Pre-competitive phase - Competitive phase - Transition phase - Unloading periods - General Preparatory Phase : General Preparatory Phase high volume - low intensity develop high level of physical conditioning improve technical elements of sport, practiced individually low intensity training in this phase allows for more selective adaptation to a stimulus such as new skill development improve individual weaknesses from previous cycle - postural imbalances, strength deficiencies etc. Specific Preparatory Phase : Specific Preparatory Phase volume begins to drop off towards the end of this phase and training becomes more specific to sport as the intensity of training increases skill combinations become more evident in training perfection of skills and use of these skills in game situations is important improve technical elements of sport practiced as a team conversion to competition phase Pre-competitive Phase : Pre-competitive Phase high intensity - low volume participation in practice competitions to assess performance and make last minute adjustments bring physical, tactical and psychological components of training to a peak in modeling tapers and peaking procedures Competitive Phase : Competitive Phase maintaining fitness levels achieved in preparation phases training very sports-specific tapering procedures implanted for competition Transition Phase : Transition Phase physical and mental recovery period link between two seasons/cycles should be planned not disorganised analyse previous training cycle Unloading Periods : Unloading Periods regenerate all qualities of athletes well being - physiology, CNS, mental approach, health etc. Loading and unloading ratios used here depend on training phase The more general training – long macro’s The more specific training – short macro’s 4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1 weeks progression followed by unloading week Within the week 6:1 = 1 day rest per week 3:1:2:1 = 2 days rest per week Style of Plans : Style of Plans Single -- achieve one peak in performance, usually allows for longer, higher volume phases which are important for long term development in young sub elite athletes. Double -- achieve two peaks in performance Multiple -- achieve many or continued peaks in performance, usually allows for more frequent high intensity phases for elite athletes to achieve or maintain peaking levels Slide 30: My Periodisation Models Strength - motor control stability motor pattern control maximal strength  specific strength Speed - control at speed/technique specific to required activity(stop when speed or technique is lost)  max speed  specific speed (agility, start, endurance) Slide 31: Endurance – motor control stability resistance to fatigue motor patterns resistant to fatigue  aerobic capacity aerobic power anaerobic capacityanaerobic power (last 4 interchangeable) Speed : Speed Speed is the critical controlling factor. It must be developed first and continued throughout the training year. Weekly schedules should be designed around this quality and recovery periods should be determined by the improvement in this quality. Strength : Strength Strength is critical for the development of control and good biomechanics. Select an exercise because it trains the movement patterns you seek. Optimal strength not maximal strength should be sought. Endurance : Endurance In most cases I don’t emphasise aerobic capacity preferring to bring it in through recovery training. I still include other aerobic/anaerobic qualities later in the training cycle Recovery : Recovery Recovery must be written into a periodised plan. Don’t wait for the symptoms of fatigue to appear before you allocate rest. Pre-determined rest periods save your athletes both physically and mentally. Tapers : Tapers More athletes fail through a poorly planned taper than from a poorly planned yearly program. The longer the event the longer the taper. The older the athlete the longer the taper Units/Sessions : Units/Sessions Once you have planned for the number of hours per week you then need to design the program How many sessions per week How many units make up each session Does the time available allow you to develop the quality allocated by the chart of ratios? What modalities will you use to achieve the required qualities? Concurrent Training : Concurrent Training All training is compromised when integrated All training interferes with other qualities whether +ively or -ively Periodisation is really your method of compromise. Each sport may have a different model of compromise No Plan Is Absolute : No Plan Is Absolute Annual plans are a guide for achieving the desired outcome, but are not absolute once written down. Change should be made when required Adjustments will be a constant part of the plan Interferences and problems will occur regularly Goals will change and be changed Being Selective About Change : Being Selective About Change When making changes to annual plans remember to justify the change Look for evidence to support the change Ask for feedback from other people or athletes Consider implications of the change Determine outcomes if no change occurs Ask yourself if same goals can still be achieved in time available. Summary : Summary Initial preparation of a plan is extensive Much responsibility will be placed on you You must be accountable to yourself and athletes You must be able to make decisions with your head based on feedback and results, not a whim. It can be very rewarding and enjoyable

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