# Periodic Trends

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Published on February 18, 2008

Author: itamarita1984

Source: slideshare.net

## Description

chapter 6 section 3 notes

Periodic Trends Chapter 6 Section 3 pp.163-169

What is a trend? 1. The general direction in which something tends to move. 2. A general tendency or inclination. See Synonyms at tendency .

1. The general direction in which something tends to move.

2. A general tendency or inclination. See Synonyms at tendency .

Things to remember… Nuclear charge Positively charged nucleus pulls electrons towards it Atomic radius is measured in picometers 1 x 10^-12 meters = 1 pm

Nuclear charge

Positively charged nucleus pulls electrons towards it

Atomic radius is measured in picometers

1 x 10^-12 meters = 1 pm

Ions An atom or bonded group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge Occurs when an atom gains or loses an electron Electrons are charged so you are gaining or losing a negative charge Affects the overall charge of the atom Electrostatic repulsion Remember like charges repel each other…electrons in orbitals repel/push each other away

Ions

An atom or bonded group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge

Occurs when an atom gains or loses an electron

Electrons are charged so you are gaining or losing a negative charge

Affects the overall charge of the atom

Electrostatic repulsion

Remember like charges repel each other…electrons in orbitals repel/push each other away

Energy is needed to overcome the attraction between the positive protons and negative electrons Ionization energy (IE) is the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom (kJ/mol) IE indicates how strongly a nucleus can hold onto its valence e- High IE= strong hold on e-; less likely to make positive ions Low IE= atom can lose valence e- easily; likely to make positive ions

Energy is needed to overcome the attraction between the positive protons and negative electrons

Ionization energy (IE) is the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom (kJ/mol)

IE indicates how strongly a nucleus can hold onto its valence e-

High IE= strong hold on e-; less likely to make positive ions

Low IE= atom can lose valence e- easily; likely to make positive ions

More about ionization energy… After removing the 1 st e- it is still possible to remove additional electrons Second ionization energy: The IE needed to remove a second electron from a +1 ion Third ionization energy: The IE needed to remove a third electron from a +2 ion

After removing the 1 st e- it is still possible to remove additional electrons

Second ionization energy:

The IE needed to remove a second electron from a +1 ion

Third ionization energy:

The IE needed to remove a third electron from a +2 ion

Electronegativity Characteristic of an element that indicates the relative ability of its atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond Units: Paulings Values are less than 3.98 or less Leave out noble gases (they really don’t react)

Characteristic of an element that indicates the relative ability of its atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond

Units: Paulings

Values are less than 3.98 or less

Leave out noble gases (they really don’t react)

Atomic Radius Electron cloud Spherical surface in which there is a 90% probability of finding an e- Not physical Atomic size is defined by how closely an atom lies to its neighboring atom Each atom has different properties so there are going to be different sizes… Different sizes in different blocks…

Electron cloud

Spherical surface in which there is a 90% probability of finding an e-

Not physical

Atomic size is defined by how closely an atom lies to its neighboring atom

Each atom has different properties so there are going to be different sizes…

Different sizes in different blocks…

Atomic Radius of a Metal Metals Atomic radius half the distance between adjacent nuclei in a crystal of that element

Metals

half the distance between adjacent nuclei in a crystal of that element

Atomic Radius of a Nonmetal Usually occur as molecules Atomic radius: Half the distance between nuclei of identical atoms that are chemically bonded together Diatomic molecules Hydrogen Bromine Iodine Oxygen

Usually occur as molecules

Half the distance between nuclei of identical atoms that are chemically bonded together

Diatomic molecules

Hydrogen

Bromine

Iodine

Oxygen

Ionic Radius Losing/gaining electrons affects size of an atom Gain an electron  atom becomes negative  atom becomes larger Electrostatic repulsion between atom’s outer electrons increase Forces outer electrons to move further apart Makes radius bigger Lose an electron  atom becomes positive  atom becomes smaller Electron lost is valence electron Can lead to completely empty orbital=smaller radius Electrostatic repulsion between atoms decrease so they can be pulled closer to nucleus

Losing/gaining electrons affects size of an atom

Gain an electron  atom becomes negative  atom becomes larger

Electrostatic repulsion between atom’s outer electrons increase

Forces outer electrons to move further apart

Lose an electron  atom becomes positive  atom becomes smaller

Electron lost is valence electron

Electrostatic repulsion between atoms decrease so they can be pulled closer to nucleus

Periodic Trend Scramble Break up into your first group Find everyone with the same type of card…all kings together, all queens together, etc…. Listen for instructions

Break up into your first group

Find everyone with the same type of card…all kings together, all queens together, etc….

Listen for instructions

Atomic Radius: Trends in Periods DECREASE in atomic radii left-to-right Increasing positive charge in the nucleus Principle energy level (n) remains the same throughout the period Each successive element the atomic # Increase Add proton and electron Electron gets added to same Prin. E level (n) No additional electrons come across valence electrons and nucleus Val. E- are not shielded from increased nuclear charge Therefore the increased nuclear charge brings the outermost electrons closer to the nucleus …which means… Smaller atomic radii going   

Increasing positive charge in the nucleus

Principle energy level (n) remains the same throughout the period

Each successive element the atomic # Increase

Electron gets added to same Prin. E level (n)

No additional electrons come across valence electrons and nucleus

Val. E- are not shielded from increased nuclear charge

Therefore the increased nuclear charge brings the outermost electrons closer to the nucleus …which means…

Smaller atomic radii going   

Atomic Radius: Trends within Groups INCREASE as you move down a group Nuclear charge increases What happens to your principle energy level as you move down a group? Therefore…Electrons added to higher principle energy levels Although nuclear charge increased, other factors in play to overpower increased nuclear charge... Outermost orbital increases in size Electrons are farther from the nucleus b/c of bigger orbital More resistant to higher nuclear charge b/c of increased distance Principle energy level increased Puts more orbital with electrons between the nucleus and the outermost electrons These electrons in between shield the outermost electrons from the pull of the nucleus

INCREASE as you move down a group

Nuclear charge increases

What happens to your principle energy level as you move down a group?

Therefore…Electrons added to higher principle energy levels

Although nuclear charge increased, other factors in play to overpower increased nuclear charge...

Outermost orbital increases in size

Electrons are farther from the nucleus b/c of bigger orbital

More resistant to higher nuclear charge b/c of increased distance

Principle energy level increased

Puts more orbital with electrons between the nucleus and the outermost electrons

These electrons in between shield the outermost electrons from the pull of the nucleus

Solve… Which has the largest radius? Magnesium (Mg) Silicon (Si) Sulfur (S) Sodium (Na) Which has the smallest radius?

Magnesium (Mg)

Silicon (Si)

Sulfur (S)

Sodium (Na)

And the answer is… Largest: Na (sodium) Smallest: S (sulfur)

Largest: Na (sodium)

Smallest: S (sulfur)

Ionic Radius: Trends in Period What type of ions do you think will be formed on the left side of the table? Smaller positive ions What type of ions do you think will be formed on the right side of the table? Larger negative ions General Rule: Left-to-right across a period, the size of positive ions gradually decreases Around 5A and 6A, the size of much larger negative ions gradually decreases

What type of ions do you think will be formed on the left side of the table?

Smaller positive ions

What type of ions do you think will be formed on the right side of the table?

Larger negative ions

General Rule:

Left-to-right across a period, the size of positive ions gradually decreases

Around 5A and 6A, the size of much larger negative ions gradually decreases

Ionic Radius: Trends in Group What happens to the principle energy level as we move down a group? Increases Ion’s outer electrons are in a higher principle level This means an increase in ionic size Ionic radii increases as we move down a group for both positive and negative ions

What happens to the principle energy level as we move down a group?

Increases

Ion’s outer electrons are in a higher principle level

This means an increase in ionic size

Ionic radii increases as we move down a group for both positive and negative ions

Ionization Energy What type of IE does group 1A have? High or low? Low IE Likely to form + ions What type of IE does group 8A have? High IE Unlikely to form ions From left to right, the IE to remove successive electrons always increases Does not happen smoothly…requires large jump of energy

What type of IE does group 1A have? High or low?

Low IE

Likely to form + ions

What type of IE does group 8A have?

High IE

Unlikely to form ions

From left to right, the IE to remove successive electrons always increases

Does not happen smoothly…requires large jump of energy

IE continued…. Trends in periods: First IE generally increases as you move left-to-right The nuclear charge increases with each successive element… What does this have to do valence electrons? Increase the nuclear charge=stronger hold on valence electrons

Trends in periods:

First IE generally increases as you move left-to-right

The nuclear charge increases with each successive element…

What does this have to do valence electrons?

Increase the nuclear charge=stronger hold on valence electrons

IE continued… Trends within groups… First IE generally decrease as you move down a group What happens to the size of an atom as you move down a group? Increases This cause decrease in IE Valence electrons are farther from the nucleus Easier to remove

Trends within groups…

First IE generally decrease as you move down a group

What happens to the size of an atom as you move down a group?

Increases

This cause decrease in IE

Valence electrons are farther from the nucleus

Easier to remove

Octet Rule What is the electron configuration for sodium? What is the new configuration when a sodium atom becomes a +1 sodium atom? What noble gas does this configuration look like? OCTET RULE: Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in an order to acquire a full set of valence electrons First period elements are en exception to the rule This rule helps to determine what kind of ions will form

What is the electron configuration for sodium?

What is the new configuration when a sodium atom becomes a +1 sodium atom?

What noble gas does this configuration look like?

OCTET RULE:

Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in an order to acquire a full set of valence electrons

First period elements are en exception to the rule

This rule helps to determine what kind of ions will form

Food for thought…. Do atoms on the right side of the periodic table tend to gain or lose electrons? Gain electrons What type of ions are they likely to form? Negative ions Do atoms on the left side of the periodic table tend to gain or lose electrons? lose e- What type of ions do they form? Positive ions

Do atoms on the right side of the periodic table tend to gain or lose electrons?

Gain electrons

What type of ions are they likely to form?

Negative ions

Do atoms on the left side of the periodic table tend to gain or lose electrons?

lose e-

What type of ions do they form?

Positive ions

Electronegativity (EN) Fluorine is the most electronegative element Value: 3.98 Cesium and Francium are the least electronegative Values: 0.79 and 0.7 Atom with greater electronegativity attracts electrons in a chemical bond the strongest

Fluorine is the most electronegative element

Value: 3.98

Cesium and Francium are the least electronegative

Values: 0.79 and 0.7

Atom with greater electronegativity attracts electrons in a chemical bond the strongest

Electronegativity (EN) Trends in periods and groups: EN decreases as you move down a group Increases as you move left to right on table Where are the lowest electronegatives found? Lower left side of the periodic table Where are the highest electronegatives found? Upper right side of the periodic table

Trends in periods and groups:

EN decreases as you move down a group

Increases as you move left to right on table

Where are the lowest electronegatives found?

Lower left side of the periodic table

Where are the highest electronegatives found?

Upper right side of the periodic table

Affinity What are some things you have an affinity for?

Electron Affinity The energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom Measure in kJ/mol Many atoms release energy when they gain an electron A + e-  A- + energy A + e- + energy  A- Some atoms need energy to be “forced” to gain an electron Produces unstable ions that lose electron quickly

The energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom

Measure in kJ/mol

Many atoms release energy when they gain an electron

A + e-  A- + energy

A + e- + energy  A-

Some atoms need energy to be “forced” to gain an electron

Produces unstable ions that lose electron quickly

Study for Ch. 6 test!

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