Published on March 15, 2014
Powe point presented by Aseel kazum Mahmood 13th.Dec.2013 1
What is perception and where is it often realized? How perception differ in frequencies and among species? What is human contribution to perception? 3
Trask (1996:260)defines perception as the process by which an individual detects and interprets information from the external world by means of the organs of sense, the nervous system and the brain, in speech. the term is particularly applied to the way in which acoustic characteristics like frequency and intensity are registered and interpreted in terms of speech perception. which is the process by which a hearer extracts identifiable linguistic elements from the continuous acoustic signal of speech 4
The mechanism of speech perception, according to Gimson (1998:8), follows the same steps of sound production but in revered way 5
saying that, we ‘’heard ‘’ a sound can mean several different Psychologic al reactions Minimu m stimulati on Difference in magnitude Auditory attention 6
How does the brain select auditory information so impressively? how is the brain able to analyze this signal so that the language units can be identified? Can we understand the mechanism of speech in a clear way? 7
Perception in the brain hearing transfor ming produci ng underst anding 8
The reason why phonetician’s interest in perception as already been stated: because the phenomena of speech can be understood only if its production and perception are views as interrelated and interacting elements of single process(Tiffany. R and Carrel. J 1987:8). Many speech scientist like Ladefoged (1967) and warren(1969) have tested the listener ability to identify the unites of speech by listening to tapes, in fact, understanding spoken language is not hard to account for . Our perceptual sets are usually set to listen to meaning, and it proves that meaning can be apprehended without necessarily utilizing every potentially available acoustic cue. However phonetician is adopt or is required to adopt a special listening set in order to note its salient features. 9
the speech decoder works by referring the incoming speech signal to command that would be appropriate to its production 10
implication analysis-b-synthesis may have for the problem of perceiving phonetic characteristics of speech 12
we are not conscious of the complexities of pattern which reach our ears. judgments made by a listener in respect of a sound continuum emitted by a speaker and, if the sound stimulus from the speaker and response form the listener are made in term of the same linguistic system , it should be possible to link through the transmission phase the listen’s impression of changes of quality, pitch, loudness and length to some articulatory activity in the part of the speaker 13
Speech sounds can differ from one another in four ways: 14
Pitch: the attribute of auditory sensation in term of which a sound may ordered on a scale from ‘low to ‘high’. It is an a auditory phonetic feature, corresponding to some degree with the acoustic feature(Ladafodge,2006:23) the study of speech is based upon the number of complete cycles of vibration of the vocal folds. According to peter Roach, it is ‘’an auditory sensation ‘’ 15
Pitch: the attribute of auditory sensation in term of which a sound may ordered on a scale from ‘low to ‘high’. It is an a auditory phonetic feature, corresponding to some degree with the acoustic feature(Ladafodge,2006:23) the study of speech is based upon the number of complete cycles of vibration of the vocal folds. According to peter Roach, it is ‘’an auditory sensation ‘’ our perception of pitch is affected by the duration and intensity of the sound stimulus. whereas frequency is an objective, physical fact, pitch is a subjective psychological sensation 16
Loudness according to Trask is the perceptual correlate of the acoustic intensity of a sound(1996:211). The attribute of auditory sensation in terms of which sound may be ordered on a scale from soft to loud. It is an auditory phonetic feature, corresponding to some degree with the acoustic features of intensity or power(measured in decibels (DB)) 17
no direct or parallel correlation between loudness (or volume) and intensity the study of speech is based upon the number of complete cycles of vibration of the vocal folds. ’the impression received by the human energy present in sounds The loudness of a sound may depend on several factors all other things being equal, some sounds appear by their nature to be louder than others: e.g. vowels may be more powerful than consonants 18
Thank you 20
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