advertisement

Perception and Decision Making in Organizations

67 %
33 %
advertisement
Information about Perception and Decision Making in Organizations
Education

Published on February 17, 2014

Author: naeemiub

Source: slideshare.net

advertisement

Perception and Decision Making in Organizations McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Perceptual Process Model Environmental Stimuli Feeling Hearing Seeing Smelling Tasting Perception Organization and Interpretation Emotions and Behavior McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Perception A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. The way in which individuals analyze and interpret incoming information and make sense of it. McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Perceptual Organization/Interpretation Factors in the perceiver  Attitude, motives. interests, experience, expectations Factors in the situations Time, work setting, social setting Factors in the target  Novelty. Motion, Sound, Size, Background, Proximity, Similarity McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Social perception and social identity Social perception, The process of combining integrating, and interpreting information about others to gain an accurate understanding of them. Social Identity Who a person is, as define in term of his or her membership in various social group. Person identity © AFP/Corbis The characteristics that define a particular individual. McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Social identity Theory A conceptualization recognizing that the way we perceive others and ourselves is based on both our unique characteristics (personal identity) and our membership in various groups (social identity). According to this theory the people compare themselves to other individuals and groups to help define who they are, both to themselves and others. McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Stereotype Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs. We can also say that Stereotype belief that members of specific groups tend to share similar traits and behaviors. McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Stereotyping Process Develop categories and assign traits Managers are absent-minded Assign person to category based on observable info Our instructor is a Manager Assign category’s traits to the person Our instructor is absent-minded McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

How Accurate are Stereotypes? Some accuracy, but also distortion and error  Traits don’t describe everyone in the group  We screen out inconsistent information Stereotypes are less accurate when:  Little interaction with people in that group  Experience conflict with members of that group  Stereotypes enhance our own social identity McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Attribution Process Internal Attribution  Perception that outcomes are due to motivation/ability rather than situation or fate External Attribution  Perception that outcomes are due to situation or fate rather than the person McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Rules of Attribution Internal Attribution High LOW LOW Consistent with past Distinctive from other situations Low High Consensus (Other people are similar High External Attribution McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Attribution Errors Fundamental Attribution Error  Attributing behavior of other people to internal factors (their motivation/ability) Self-Serving Bias  Attributing our successes to internal factors and our failures to external factors McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Cycle Supervisor forms expectations Employee’s behavior matches expectations Expectations affect supervisor’s behavior Supervisor’s behavior affects employee McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Dealing with Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Awareness training  Leaders learn effects of negative perceptions  Problem is that awareness doesn’t prevent selffulfilling prophecy Emerging three-prong strategy  Support a learning orientation  Engage in contingency leadership styles  Increase employee self-efficacy McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Other Perceptual Errors Primacy  First impressions Recency  Most recent information dominates perceptions Halo Effect  One trait forms a general impression Projection  Believing other people are similar to you McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Selective Perception The tendency to selectively interpret what one sees on the basis of one’s background, experience and attitude. McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Improving Perceptual Accuracy Diversity Initiatives Know Yourself Compare Perceptions With Others McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Improving Perceptual Accuracy Empathize With Others Postpone Impression Formation Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Decision making Individual Differences Personality Gender McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Individual Decision Making We offer four suggestions to improve their decision making. First analyze the situation. Second, be aware of biases. Third combine rational analysis with intuition Finally, try to enhance your creativity. McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Perception and Decision Making - StudyMode

Perception and Decision Making Individuals with in organizations ... Perception and Decision Making ... Brand Perception & Decision Making Most ...
Read more

Chapter 5: Perception and Individual Decision Making

Person Perception: Making ... The Link Between Perception and Individual Decision Making . ... How should we make decisions in organizations?
Read more

CHAPTER 5 PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING - GWDG

CHAPTER 5 PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING ... LINK BETWEEN PERCEPTION AND DECISION MAKING ... in organizations make decisions and the quality of ...
Read more

Relationship Between Perception and Decision Making

Relationship Between Perception and Decision ... Relationship between perception and decision making ... making. µDecision making in organizations is ...
Read more

The Role of Perception in the Decision-Making Process ...

... The Role of Perception in the Decision Making ... Making Individuals with in organizations have to ... role of perception in the decision ...
Read more

Perception and Individual Decision Making | Hamza AL ...

... Perception and Individual Decision Making Kelli ... the perception process. It is making ... Models in Organizations Decision making is ...
Read more

Perception Decision Making - UK Essays

Decision making is an important skill for organizations seeking to reach goals. Organizational excellence is about accurate decision making ...
Read more

3: Perception and Individual Decision Making - My Courses

Explain the link between perception and decision making. ... Perception influences this entire ... in thinking through decision-making in organizations.
Read more