Pennington Cape Cod

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Information about Pennington Cape Cod

Published on December 10, 2007

Author: Garrick


The Integrated Approach to Treating Addiction:  The Integrated Approach to Treating Addiction Andrea Pennington, M.D., C.Ac. The Integrated Approach to Treating Addiction:  The Integrated Approach to Treating Addiction Acupuncture Mind-Body Therapies Herbal Remedies Somatic Psychotherapy ACUPUNCTURE:  ACUPUNCTURE Documented in Chinese literature as early as the Han dynasty in the second century BC, in the Huang Di Nei Jing: (‘‘Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Medicine’’). What is acupuncture?:  What is acupuncture? Acupuncture is a therapy which was developed in China over 3,000 years ago Utilizes tiny, pre-sterilized needles to contact and move Qi (pronounced chē) Our Qi, or vital life force, impacts every aspect of our bodies. Acupuncture for addiction treatment in the US:  Acupuncture for addiction treatment in the US In 1973, Wen reported that opiate-addicted patients who were using electroacupuncture to treat postsurgical pain described relief from symptoms of withdrawal. Omura brought the treatment protocol to Lincoln Hospital in New York in 1974 Michael Smith, MD developed a five-point auricular treatment protocol for addictions that is currently being taught and advocated by the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA). Wen JL, Cheung SYC: Treatment of drug addiction by acupuncture and electrical stimulation. Asian J Med 9:138–141, 1973. Smith MO, Khan I: An acupuncture programme for the treatment of drug-addicted persons. Bull Narcot 40:35–41, 1988. Effects of Acupuncture on Addiction:  Effects of Acupuncture on Addiction Decreases cravings Improves sleep patterns Reduces anxiety Aids in stress reduction Improves participation in counseling process How does acupuncture work?:  How does acupuncture work? Through a series of non-invasive auricular (ear) treatments we contact and move qi to balance the body’s energy Acupuncture needles stimulate peripheral nerves to cause release of endorphins in the brain, thereby causing relaxation and a sense of well-being; Acupuncture thus can provide direct biochemical treatment of opiate and ethanol craving and withdrawal. McLellan AT, Grossman DS, Blaine JD, Haverkos HW: Acupuncture treatment for drug abuse: A technical review. J Subst Abuse Treat 10:569–576, 1993 Auriculotherapy:  Auriculotherapy Ear is a microsystem of the body NADA Protocol:  NADA Protocol 5 Points for Addiction Sympathetic Shen Men (Spirit Gate) Kidney Liver Lung POINT ZERO (OPTIONAL) McLellan AT, Grossman DS, Blaine JD, Haverkos HW: Acupuncture treatment for drug abuse: A technical review. J Subst Abuse Treat 10:569–576, 1993 Acupuncture Uses in Addiction:  Bullock ML, Culliton PD, Olander RT: Controlled trial of acupuncture for severe recidivist alcoholism. Lancet 1:1435–1439, 1989. Acupuncture Uses in Addiction Alcohol Cocaine Opiates Marijuana 1989, Bullock study: auricular acupuncture effective in the treatment of recidivist alcoholics. 80 recidivist alcoholics enrolled in a treatment facility were randomized to receive either the appropriate treatment protocol (treatment group) or sham acupuncture at sites close to the appropriate points (control group). The outcomes measured: completion of the program & self-reported abstinence at 1, 3, & 6 months following treatment. Of 40 patients in treatment group, 21 finished the program, whereas only 1 of 40 in the control group completed treatment. Fewer treatment group patients than control group patients reported drinking episodes at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up evaluations. Acupuncture Uses in Addiction:  Shwartz M, Saitz R, Mulvey K, Brannigan P: The value of acupuncture detoxification programs in a substance abuse treatment system. J Subs Abuse Treat 17:305–312, 1998. Acupuncture Uses in Addiction Alcohol Cocaine Opiates Marijuana 1998, Shwartz retrospective study Compared residential detoxification programs that used acupuncture with programs that did not. 6907 patients completed non-acupuncture programs and 1104 patients completed programs that used acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy. The study subjects were dependent on alcohol, cocaine, crack, heroin, or marijuana, or on a combination of these drugs. The primary outcome measured was readmission to a detoxification program in the 6 months following discharge. Those who completed programs offering acupuncture were readmitted to detoxification less frequently than were those from conventional programs Acupuncture Uses in Addiction:  Avants SK, Margolin A, Holford TR, Kosten TR: A randomized controlled trial of auricular acupuncture for cocaine dependence. Arch Intern Med 160:2305–2312, 2000. Acupuncture Uses in Addiction Alcohol Cocaine Opiates Marijuana 2000, Avants, et al., randomized controlled trial Auricular acupuncture for cocaine dependence 82 patients randomized to receive either appropriate acupuncture treatment, sham acupuncture, or relaxation therapy. Thrice-weekly urine screening conducted over an eight-week period. Patients who received acupuncture protocol were less likely to test positive for cocaine on urine screening than were patients in the sham acupuncture control group or the relaxation control group. Acupuncture and stress management:  Acupuncture and stress management Decreased sensation of distressful ‘fight or flight’ response Reduced cortisol levels Decreased impulsivity Mind-Body Therapies:  Mind-Body Therapies Meditation EMDR Biofeedback Neurofeedback Guided Imagery Hypnosis Yoga Therapeutic Massage Somatic Psychotherapies Slide15:  Mind-Body Therapies Eye Movement Desensitization/Reprocessing (EMDR) combines a range of therapeutic approaches with eye movements or other forms of rhythmical stimulation, such as hand taps or sounds. Some speculate that the rapid unique therapeutic element of EMDR – the eye movements or other rhythmical stimulation – might help the brain access and process traumatic material. EMDR has been most effective with single-incident trauma, but its uses continue to evolve in addressing longer histories of emotional or physical trauma, and in balancing other aspects of a person's life.. Slide16:  Mind-Body Therapies Biofeedback uses sensors or electrodes attached to the body to measure skin temperature or muscle tension. The person can see or hear readings—feedback—and can learn to make subtle changes that bring relief and improvement to a variety of disorders. Neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) uses electrodes attached to the scalp which provide brainwave pattern information, allowing the person to see the effects of relaxation, breathing, and focused attention, and learn to slow down or speed up brain waves. Body Oriented Psychotherapy:  Body Oriented Psychotherapy Because the body often holds onto the memory of traumatic experiences, modalities that aid in the release and resolution of trauma must be included in the treatment process What is Trauma?:  What is Trauma? Medical Definition A serious or critical bodily injury, wound, or shock. Psychiatric Definition An experience that is emotionally painful, distressful, or shocking, which often results in lasting mental and physical effects Slide19:  Cognitive Emotional Spiritual Behavioral Physical Varied Responses to Trauma Are based on their level of emotional and psychological development at the time of the traumatic event and are expressed along the following dimensions: Slide20:  Trouble concentrating Responses to Trauma – Cognitive Preoccupation with the event Recurring dreams or nightmares Questioning spiritual beliefs Inability to process the significance of the event Learned helplessness, hopelessness Slide21:  Depression or sadness Responses to Trauma - Emotional Irritability, anger, resentfulness Despair, hopelessness, feelings of guilt Phobias, health concerns Anxiety or fearfulness Slide22:  Isolation from others Responses to Trauma - Behavioral Interpersonal conflicts Sleep problems Avoiding reminders of the event Crying easily Change in appetite Social withdrawal Talking repeatedly about the event Refusal to go to school Addictive behaviors Repetitive play Slide23:  Exacerbation of medical problems Responses to Trauma - Physical Headaches Fatigue Physical complaints with no physical cause Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Slide24:  Somatic Experiencing Trauma resolution modality developed by Peter Levine, PhD Trauma is an internal straitjacket created when a devastating moment is frozen in time. It stifles the unfolding of being, strangling our attempts to move forward with our lives. It disconnects us from our selves, others, nature and spirit. When people are overwhelmed by threat, we become frozen in fear. Slide25:  Somatic Experiencing Our instinctive trauma release systems are often inhibited by the ''rational'' portion of our brains. This restraint prevents the complete discharge of survival energies, and does not allow the nervous system to regain its equilibrium. The un-discharged “survival energy” remains “stuck” in the body and the nervous system. The various symptoms of trauma result from the body's attempt to ''manage'' and contain this unused energy. Slide26:  Somatic Experiencing SE allows the client to discharge the traumatic energy SE employs the awareness of body sensation to help people ''renegotiate'‘ and heal their traumas rather than relive them. Ref: Waking the Tiger Trauma Healing Slide27:  Hakomi Method Originated by Ron Kurtz, this system is based on five therapeutic principles – Mindfulness, Organicity, Non-Violence, the Mind-Body Connection, and Unity. It is a body-centered approach for which, in part, the therapist helps the client experiment with small changes in gesture or other movements, to see what differences occur in the processing of emotionally charged content (Ex: the person might be observed to make a certain gesture or have a certain posture when talking about the attacker – the therapist might suggest the gesture or posture be changed to a different one as an experiment, and then to notice the changes in feelings or thoughts). Slide28:  Somatic Psychology Developed by Pat Ogden, this treatment merges somatic therapies, neuroscience, attachment theory, and cognitive approaches, as well Hakomi Method. The approach often uses physical expression to process the energy stored in the body following a trauma, to reset the neurological system into better balance. (Ex: the person might be asked to push the attacker away by forcefully pushing against a wall or against a pillow held by the therapist, to allow the body's neurological and musculature systems to reset themselves to a more normal level). Slide29:  Integrative Body Psychotherapy Developed by Jack Rosenberg and others, this system integrates verbal and cognitive methods with breath work and movement. It is built on the theories of many of the therapies that focus on early childhood, personal relationships, and existential issues, with a view that trauma sustained in the body/mind occurs very early and that subsequent trauma may recapitulate earlier trauma (Ex: the client would breathe deeply to stay grounded and feel safe, and would recall and re-tell—not re-live—the incident, experiencing physical fear reactions such as shaking or contractions, and releasing these patterns through movement, words, or other means to re-pattern and dissipate the frozen energetic patterns). Slide30:  Universal response is toward forming attachments and building community Cultural Differences in Response to Trauma US – Open discussion and expression Slide31:  Focus on interdependence and community Cultural Differences in Response to Trauma: Asian Americans Favor discreetness, non-imposition of feelings upon others Private discussion and expression Social withdrawal Flat affect, stoic attitudes Internalization of grief Slide32:  Japanese: Passive dependency Cultural Differences in Response to Trauma: Asian Americans Chinese: Somatopsychic expressions Helplessness Insecurity Headache Weakness Irritability Poor appetite Slide33:  Outward expressions with great emotion when social trauma Cultural Differences in Response to Trauma : African Americans Undercurrent of mistrust of authority Withdrawal Explosive anger or rebellion Slide34:  Desire to conform to culture of US Cultural Differences in Response to Trauma: Latinos/Hispanics Victims may try to blend in, avoid standing out Thank you:  Thank you Dr. Andrea Pennington The Pennington Institute for Health & Wellness & Isis Salon & Therapeutic Spa 8505 Fenton Street Silver Spring, MD 20910 301-588-PENN (7366)

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