Published on March 5, 2014
Pengantar Ilmu Kebumian (Introduction to Earth Sciences) Zainal Abidin SMAN 3 Bandar Lampung, 27 Juli 2014
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Ilmu Kebumian Ilmu Kebumian memberikan dasar fisik untuk memahami dunia di mana kita hidup dan di mana manusia berusaha untuk mencapai keberlanjutan. Sistem Ilmu Kebumian mencakup kimia, fisika, biologi, matematika dan ilmu-ilmu terapan yang melampaui batas-batas disiplinnya untuk memperlakukan bumi sebagai suatu sistem terpadu. Ilmu Kebumian telah memberi stimulus oleh meningkatnya peran aktivitas manusia dalam perubahan global dan kemampuan pemantauan global bumi dari luar angkasa. Ilmu Sistem Kebumian berfungsi sebagai kerangka kerja untuk studi terapan misalnya penginderaan jarak jauh (indraja), GIS, manajemen bencana, dan lain-lain (http://www.usra.edu/esse/summer98/oneminuteess.html; http://www.usra.edu/esse/essonline/whatis.html) Sebagai Sistem Ilmu Kebumian Terpadu mempelajari adanya interaksi yang erat antara udara (air), air (water), tanah (land) dan kehidupan (life). NASA membangun kerangka keilmuan untuk ilmu kebumian yang mengaitkan variabelvariabel berikut secara terpadu, yaitu: 1. hubungan matahari-bumi, 2. Perubahan dan variabilitas iklim, 3. ekosistem dan siklus karbon, 4. inti dan permukaan bumi, 5. komposisi atmosfer, 6. cuaca, 7. siklus energi dan air.
Apakah Ilmu Kebumian itu? Earth science is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. It is arguably a special case in planetary science, the Earth being the only known life-bearing planet. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. The formal discipline of Earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth. Typically, Earth scientists will use tools from physics, chemistry, biology, chronology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth system works, and how it evolved to its current state. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_science) Earth is a complex, dynamic system we do not yet fully understand. The Earth system, like the human body, comprises diverse components that interact in complex ways. We need to understand the Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere as a single connected system. Our planet is changing on all spatial and temporal scales. The purpose of NASA's Earth science program is to develop a scientific understanding of Earth's system and its response to natural or human-induced changes, and to improve prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards. (http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/)
Earth Sciences and the physical environment of the Earth contains four (4) components: 1. 2. 3. 4. Geology Oceanography Meteorology Astronomy *Note how the focus of the course is from: The most basic ingredients of the earth (geology) To the most basic component of life (water and oceanography) To our atmosphere and weather (meteorology) And then finally to our solar system and planets (astronomy).
*Your Textbook: Ilmu Bumi dan Antariksa (Depdikbud) Ilmu Kebumian (TOIKI) Earth and Space Science (QITEP in Science)org Web: http://toiki.org
What a pretty blue planet!
Timeline of The Earth!
Map of tectonic plate 74 Source : usgs
The "Spheres" of the Earth Hydrosphere: dynamic mass of liquid water which encircles the earth. 71% of the earth's surface is covered by seawater (oceans), which accounts for 97% of the earth's total water volume. The hydrosphere also includes: streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, glaciers, and groundwater, which compose the freshwater portion of the hydrosphere. Processes, which are important on earth and directly related to water, include: a. Erosion b. Transportation c. Weathering
Atmosphere: gaseous blanket of air encompassing the earth from above. Air and the protective ozone (O3) layer (in the stratosphere) are contained in the atmosphere. Dynamic changes occurring between the earth's solid surface and the atmosphere as well as the earth's solid surface and outer space make up our weather changes. 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen and 1% other gases. Other gases include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, argon, and neon.
*Our earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the sun. It is tilted on a 23.5-degree axis - one reason why we have seasons.
Lithosphere and the solid earth: the solid earth lies beneath the atmosphere and the oceans and composes 29% of the earth's surface. It is divided into several distinct units or layers: – lithosphere or crust: two (2) types of crust: oceanic and continental with basic differences Oceanic crust is thinner, denser, and usually darker in color Continental crust is lighter in weight, less dense, light in color, and tends to float over oceanic crust – mantle: beneath the crust; houses molten rock material called magma – outer core: composed of liquid iron and nickel; very dense material – inner core: composed of solid iron and nickel; extremely dense material
*Generally, continental crust averages approximately 2750 feet above sealevel while our oceans average approximately 12,500 feet in depth. Thus, there is quite a disparity in ocean basins and mountainous regions on earth. We will study the three (3) rock types composing the earth: 1. Igneous - related to molten rock 2. Sedimentary - layers of eroded particles and sediments 3. Metamorphic - rock resulting from pre-existing igneous or sedimentary rock that has undergone a change by pressure and/or temperature changes. The interaction between the three (3) rock types is referred to as the Rock Cycle.
Biosphere: includes all living entities of the solid earth. This includes plants, animals, humans, and any other living organisms. The earth tends to act as a system. That is, all of the "spheres" interact and work in concert to make our planet livable and able to sustain life forms. Example: hydrologic system or cycle creating our changing weather patterns.
The Scientific Method As scientists, the nature of studying our earth must be accomplished in an organized and logical fashion. A haphazard, "estimated guess" method will not suffice in the scientific community. Thus, all scientists utilize the Scientific Method, which is summarized in six (6) very general steps, specific to the Earth Sciences: 1. Observation. 2. Formulation of a question. 3. Collection of pertinent data and performing experiments. 4. Development of a hypothesis (preliminary untested observation - NOT an educated guess) 5. Testing of the hypothesis 6. Proving the hypothesis (numerically if possible)
Geology is the first section of Earth Science that will be presented. Geology literally means study of the earth and forms the basic framework for this course. *Traditionally, geology is divided into two (2) areas of study: 1. Physical geology - the study of the concrete aspects of the earth's solid surface 2. Historical geology - study of earth events and occurrences shaping our earth
Key Terminology Geology Meteorology Hydrosphere Lithosphere Ozone Oceanic crust Magma Outer core Igneous rocks Metamorphic rocks Rock cycle Environment Hypothesis Oceanography Astronomy Atmosphere Biosphere Continental crust Mantle Lava Inner core Sedimentary rocks Scientific Method System Resources Physical/Historical geology
Pertinent Web Sites Earth and Environmental Science Resources The U.S. Geological Survey registry of Earth and environmental science Internet resources. EarthComm EarthComm is an Earth Science curriculum developed by the American Geological Institute (AGI) and supported by the National Science Foundation and donors of the American Geological Institute Foundation. Through EarthComm, AGI focuses attention on the national deficiency in high school Earth Science education (grades 9-12) and on development of a complete high-school Earth science curriculum. Earth Online (Wadsworth Publishing) A comprehensive listing of Internet resources for Earth science from Wadsworth Publishing. Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP Federation) brings together data and information providers from government agencies, universities, non-profit organizations, and businesses in an effort to make Earth science information available to a broader community. The objective of the Federation is to develop methods that make space-based imagery and related Earth science data easy to preserve, locate, access and use for all beneficial applications. Earth Science Resources The Resources for Earth science and geography instruction Web site contains googles of up-to-date links to credible Earth science sites in many disciplines. A must site to bookmark. Earth Science Resources on the Internet An excellent reference listing numerous links and an explanation on how to use the Internet from the University of North Carolina. Earth Science Week: Home Page Information about a variety of ways to become actively involved in promoting the geosciences in public settings. Earth Science World Earth Science World is the place to explore your interests in the Earth and in science. You can monitor current events, make maps, do activities and puzzles, compile data, collect ideas for Earth Science Week, gather career information, and browse the Book Center. The American Geological Institute is developing this site in cooperation with content partners. Earth System Science The goal of this site is to serve as a repository for Earth system science education and research resources—a starting point for your reference as you explore this expanding interdisciplinary field, or a place to look for the latest ESS developments.
Earth System Science Center (Penn State University) Penn State's Earth System Science Center (ESSC) brings together the Departments of Geosciences, Meteorology, Geography, and Energy, Environmental, and Mineral Economics to search for links between the Earth's physical processes and past and future global change. The center coordinates and conducts extensive research related to the global water cycle, the biogeochemical cycles, Earth system history, and human impacts on the Earth system. Earth System Science Links (NASA) This is the online version of a 40+ page document for K-12 and college educators containing links to resources in oceanography and Earth system science. The list was produced by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center. EarthTrends (World Resources Institute) EarthTrends environmental information portal offers timely and accurate global environmental and sustainable development information. Exploring the Environment Emphasizing an integrated approach to environmental Earth science through problem-based learning, the Exploring the Environment modules use Earth system science to examine a variety of current topics. Institute for Computational Earth System Science (ICESS) The Institute for Computational Earth System Science (ICESS) works to address issues regarding global and regional climate changes by providing data and scientific interpretation through computer science. ICESS hopes to help governmental decision makers use observation and modeling information provided by long-term environmental research. Teachearth.com Teachearth.com provides access to a vast amount of resources for teaching and learning about Earth system science. K-12 teachers can quickly locate classroom activities through the Teachers' Web Express.
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