Peer Groups

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Information about Peer Groups
Education

Published on November 2, 2008

Author: 5t3ph

Source: slideshare.net

Description

The evolution of the ecology of peer groups, from infancy to adolescence.

Peer Groups Stephanie Scharf CEHS 200: Chapter 8 Nov. 3, 2008

Main Points: Purpose Evolution of Interaction Peer Groups and Play Organization Behavior Influences Acceptance vs. Rejection Positive and Negative Outcomes

Purpose

Evolution of Interaction

Peer Groups and Play

Organization

Behavior Influences

Acceptance vs. Rejection

Positive and Negative Outcomes

Peers equals, individuals who are usually of the same gender, age, and social status and who share interests

Ecological Model Real Life Example I am an only child. Therefore, my social interactions with peers took place only at school and church . Often, the friends I made would come visit in the evenings, where my parents would supervise our activities. Friends visit Make Friends CHILD PEERS FAMILY SCHOOL/ CHURCH

Purpose of Peer Groups

Satisfy certain belonging needs Often preferred to other socializing agents Influence social, cognitive and psychological development Influence development of morals and values Interaction provides instruction on acceptable behavior.

Satisfy certain belonging needs

Often preferred to other socializing agents

Influence social, cognitive and psychological development

Influence development of morals and values

Interaction provides instruction on acceptable behavior.

Social Support – resources provided by others in times of need Validation for the self Encouragement to try new things Opportunities for comparison Enable self-disclosure Provide identity

Social Support – resources provided by others in times of need

Validation for the self

Encouragement to try new things

Opportunities for comparison

Enable self-disclosure

Provide identity

Evolution of Peer Interaction

Infancy/Toddlerhood First feel belonging and develop attachment to parents Capable of simple interactions distinguishing self from others Progress from emotional to behavioral interactions By 3.5 can be socially involved with peers Friendship: momentary playmateship

Infancy/Toddlerhood

First feel belonging and develop attachment to parents

Capable of simple interactions distinguishing self from others

Progress from emotional to behavioral interactions

By 3.5 can be socially involved with peers

Friendship: momentary playmateship

Early Childhood Parenting styles affect opportunity for social interactions Deal with more complex issues such as power, compliance, cooperation, and conflict Interaction increases and becomes more complex, forming groups Friendship: one-way assistance

Early Childhood

Parenting styles affect opportunity for social interactions

Deal with more complex issues such as power, compliance, cooperation, and conflict

Interaction increases and becomes more complex, forming groups

Friendship: one-way assistance

Middle Childhood School age children experience increase in social interaction Peer group attractive because opportunity for independence from family Enjoy the closeness and sharing of emotions Group provides identity models Peer interaction more than 30% of their time Activities become gender-specific and reflect culture Friendship: Two-way, fair-weather cooperation; intimate, mutually shared relationships

Middle Childhood

School age children experience increase in social interaction

Peer group attractive because opportunity for independence from family

Enjoy the closeness and sharing of emotions

Group provides identity models

Peer interaction more than 30% of their time

Activities become gender-specific and reflect culture

Friendship: Two-way, fair-weather cooperation; intimate, mutually shared relationships

Adolescence Develop “best friends” and base friendships off closeness of the relationship Peer group activities escalate Turn to group for “what’s hot now” “ hang out”, talk, watch TV, listen to music, play video games, be seen, see who else is “hanging” with whom, wait for something to happen Friendship: autonomous interdependent friendships

Adolescence

Develop “best friends” and base friendships off closeness of the relationship

Peer group activities escalate

Turn to group for “what’s hot now”

“ hang out”, talk, watch TV, listen to music, play video games, be seen, see who else is “hanging” with whom, wait for something to happen

Friendship: autonomous interdependent friendships

Peer Groups and Play

Help learn about environment Imaginary situations governed by social rules Acceptable way to express emotions and impulses Practice skills necessary for adult life

Help learn about environment

Imaginary situations governed by social rules

Acceptable way to express emotions and impulses

Practice skills necessary for adult life

Peer Group Organization

Cliques mutually connected by doing things together Crowds loosely organized reference groups of cliques

Cliques

mutually connected by doing things together

Crowds

loosely organized reference groups of cliques

Ways Peer Groups Influence Behavior

Reinforcement giving attention and acceptance Modeling imitation, conformity Punishment teasing, physical aggression, rejection Apprenticeship the “expert” helps the “novice”

Reinforcement

giving attention and acceptance

Modeling

imitation, conformity

Punishment

teasing, physical aggression, rejection

Apprenticeship

the “expert” helps the “novice”

Stratify some individuals more dominant and other submissive Develop norms standards that serve as guidelines Frustration and competition contribute to hostility Competition between groups fosters cohesiveness within groups Intergroup hostility can often be reduced by working towards a common goal

Stratify

some individuals more dominant and other submissive

Develop norms

standards that serve as guidelines

Frustration and competition contribute to hostility

Competition between groups fosters cohesiveness within groups

Intergroup hostility can often be reduced by working towards a common goal

Adult influence How adults mediate the social interaction within a peer group – competitive or cooperative – influences children’s behavior Adult leadership style influences socialization

Adult influence

How adults mediate the social interaction within a peer group – competitive or cooperative – influences children’s behavior

Adult leadership style influences socialization

Peer Acceptance Versus Rejection

Common Behavior Traits

Positive Peer Group Outcomes

Collaboration Tutoring Counseling Neighborhood affects positive or negative effects

Collaboration

Tutoring

Counseling

Neighborhood affects positive or negative effects

Negative Peer Group Outcomes

Bullies and Victims Gangs

Bullies and Victims

Gangs

Bully Characteristics Domination Physically stronger Impulsive, low frustration tolerance, easily angered Rule-breakers Show little empathy Positive self-concept Antisocial behavior

Bully Characteristics

Domination

Physically stronger

Impulsive, low frustration tolerance, easily angered

Rule-breakers

Show little empathy

Positive self-concept

Antisocial behavior

Victim Characteristics Physically weaker Show fear of pain Poor physical coordination Cautious, sensitive, quiet, passive, submissive, shy Anxious, insecure, unhappy Negative self-concept Relate better to adults than peers

Victim Characteristics

Physically weaker

Show fear of pain

Poor physical coordination

Cautious, sensitive, quiet, passive, submissive, shy

Anxious, insecure, unhappy

Negative self-concept

Relate better to adults than peers

What to do? Intervention with bullies that do not reinforce harassment Intervention with victims to alter negative self-concept and to respond in nonreinforcing ways to threats

What to do?

Intervention with bullies that do not reinforce harassment

Intervention with victims to alter negative self-concept and to respond in nonreinforcing ways to threats

Gang group of people who form an allegiance for a common purpose and engage in unlawful or criminal activity

Gang

group of people who form an allegiance for a common purpose and engage in unlawful or criminal activity

Reasons Gangs Form Racism Socioeconomics Family structure Belief system

Reasons Gangs Form

Racism

Socioeconomics

Family structure

Belief system

Peer Groups Stephanie Scharf CEHS 200: Chapter 8 Nov. 3, 2008

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