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Published on February 26, 2008

Author: kassab

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One of the oldest Known conditions:  One of the oldest Known conditions Facts about epilepsy:  Facts about epilepsy 1 in 20 people will have a seizure in their life time. At least 1 in 131 people have epilepsy in the UK with 75 new cases diagnosed daily. More than 2.5 million Americans have epilepsy. 50 million world wide have epilepsy making it the most common serious neurological condition globally . Facts about epilepsy:  Facts about epilepsy 80 per cent of the worlds population of people with epilepsy are in developing countries . 90 per cent of people with epilepsy in developing countries are not receiving appropriate treatment. Facts about epilepsy:  Facts about epilepsy Epilepsy is a physical condition. It can affect anyone at any age without warning or apparent cause. There are many different causes, about 30 different epileptic syndromes and over 38 different seizure types. Facts about epilepsy:  Facts about epilepsy Someone can have more than one type of seizure. It can go into remission as suddenly as it started or last a life time. The seizure type(s) someone has can change with time or with drug treatment. What is seizure&epilepsy:  What is seizure&epilepsy Epilepsy A clinical paroxysmal disorder of recurring seizures . Seizure A transient dysfunction of brain due to an abnormal firing of cerebral neurons, which may or may not have a clinical manifestation. TYPES OF seizures:  TYPES OF seizures A SEIZURE OR CONVULSION IS A: PAROXYSMAL . TIME-LIMITED CHANGE IN MOTOR ACTIVITY . AND /OR BEHAVIOR THAT RESULTS FROM ABNORMAL ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY IN THE BRAIN. TYPES OF seizures:  TYPES OF seizures MOST SEIZURES ARE PROVOKED BY: HIGH FEVER. INFECTION. SYNCOPE . HEAD TRAUMA . HYPOXIA . TOXINS . CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS. TYPES OF seizures:  TYPES OF seizures PROGNOSIS IS GENERALLY GOOD IN CHILDREN. 10-20% HAVE PERSISTENT SEIZURES . The chance of having a second seizure after an initial unprovoked episode is 30% TYPES OF seizures:  TYPES OF seizures Minute details of the seizure can help determine the site of onset and aid in classification: Did the patient become extremely pale before falling? Was the patient able to respond to queries during the episode? Did the patient become completely unconscious? Did the patient fall stiffly or gradually slump to the floor? How long did the stiffening or jerking last? Where were the sites of jerking? TYPES OF seizures:  TYPES OF seizures Events after the seizure can be helpful in diagnosis. Was there loss of speech? Was the patient able to respond accurately before going to sleep? All the events prior to, during, and after the seizure can help to classify the seizure . TYPES OF seizures:  TYPES OF seizures Classifying the seizure may aid in : diagnosis . prognosis . and may suggest appropriate : laboratory tests . medications . TYPES OF seizures:  TYPES OF seizures there are over 40 types of seizure, most are classed within 2 main categories: Slide16:  1-Generalized seizures : the excessive electrical activity encompasses the entire organ. The 2 most common forms are : generalized absence seizures . tonic-clonic seizures. Slide17:  2-Partial seizures : the excessive electrical activity is limited to one area. The 2 most common forms are : simple partial seizures . complex partial seizures. Classification of Epileptic Seizures:  Classification of Epileptic Seizures Generalized seizures Absencess Typical Atypical Generalized tonic clonic Tonic Clonic Myoclonic Atonic Infantile spasms Unclassified seizures Classification of Epileptic Seizures:  Classification of Epileptic Seizures Partial seizures: Simple partial (consciousness retained) Motor Sensory Autonomic Psychic Complex partial (consciousness impaired) Simple partial, followed by impaired consciousness Consciousness impaired at onset Partial seizures with secondary generalization Source: Nelson”s Textbook of Pediatrics, (17th ed.) Classification of Epileptic Seizures Absence Seizures:  Absence Seizures In an absence seizure, epileptic activity occurs throughout the entire brain. milder type of activity. unconsciousness . NO convulsions. no memory after the seizure Absence Seizures:  Absence Seizures begins abruptly and without warning. consists of a period of unconsciousness . with a blank stare. and ends abruptly. no confusion after the seizure. resume full activity immediately. may be accompanied by: chewing movements. rapid breathing, or rhythmic blinking. Absence Seizures:  Absence Seizures short, usually lasting only 2-10 seconds. very mild. may go unnoticed by parents and teachers. recur frequently during the day, a child who experiences them may have difficulty learning if they are not recognized and treated. Tonic-Clonic Seizures :  Tonic-Clonic Seizures In a generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizure. the person will usually emit a short cry . fall to the floor. Their muscles will stiffen (tonic phase) . and then their extremities will jerk and twitch (clonic phase). Bladder control may be lost. Consciousness is regained slowly. Tonic-Clonic Seizures:  Tonic-Clonic Seizures After a seizure, the person may feel : Fatigue. confusion and disorientation. This may last from 5 minutes to several hours or even days. The person may fall : asleep, or gradually become less confused until full consciousness is regained. Slide27:  Do... Protect the person from injury - (remove harmful objects from nearby) . Cushion their head . Look for an epilepsy identity card . Aid breathing by gently placing them in the recovery position once the seizure has finished . Be calmly reassuring. Stay with the person until recovery is complete . Slide28:  Don't... Restrain the person . Put anything in the person’s mouth . Try to move the person unless they are in danger . Give the person anything to eat or drink until they are fully recovered . Attempt to bring them round. Clonic Seizures :  Clonic Seizures lose control of bodily functions . begin jerking in various parts of the body. Consciousness may be temporarily lost. and followed by : confusion. Clonic seizures begin in early childhood. With time, clonic seizures may progress to generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Tonic Seizures :  Tonic Seizures uncommon, especially when they occur without clonic jerking. They usually are manifest with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome . or, less commonly, with : multiple sclerosis. most often develop in childhood, although they can occur at any age. Tonic Seizures:  Tonic Seizures Tonic seizures are characterized by : facial and truncal muscle spasms. flexion or extension of the upper and lower extremities. impaired consciousness. Atonic (Drop) Seizures :  Atonic (Drop) Seizures Atonic seizures (drop attacks) . not seen in many children. Without warning. abruptly loses consciousness. collapses and falls to the floor. no convulsion, but children may bang their heads as they fall. Recovery occurs after a few seconds. The child regains consciousness, and can again stand and walk . Myoclonic Seizures :  Myoclonic Seizures occur in several different types of childhood epilepsy. They involve abrupt muscle jerks in part or all the body. A hand may suddenly fling out, a shoulder may shrug, a foot may kick, or the entire body may jerk. Myclonic Seizures:  Myclonic Seizures can occur as a single event or in series. Consciousness and memory are not impaired. may cause a child to spill or drop what s/he is holding or to fall from his/her chair. should not be confused with tics or "startle" responses. Infantile Spasms :  Infantile Spasms very rare. Occur in the first year of life. consist of: clusters of sudden, quick movements. Typically, if the child is sitting up,the head may fall forward, the arms will flex forward, and the body may flex at the waist. If lying down, the knees will be drawn up, with arms and head flexed forward as if the body is reaching for support. Infantile Spasms:  Infantile Spasms last only 1 or 2 seconds. They often repeat in a series of 5 to 50 or more. A child may have many series per day. most likely to occur when the child is drowsy, just waking from a nap or falling asleep. Complex Partial Seizures:  Complex Partial Seizures occurs when epileptic activity spreads to : both temporal lobes in the brain. often occurs after a simple partial seizure of temporal lobe origin. are experienced most by children. Complex Partial Seizures:  Complex Partial Seizures not involve convulsions. but consciousness is impaired. Someone experiencing one will no longer respond to questions after the seizure starts. Complex Partial Seizures:  Complex Partial Seizures often begins with a: blank look or empty stare. They will appear unaware of their surroundings . may seem dazed. The seizure may progress to include : chewing movements, uncoordinated activity. sometimes performing meaningless bits of behaviour which appear random and clumsy. Complex Partial Seizures:  Complex Partial Seizures These automatisms may include actions such as : picking at their clothes, trying to remove them. walking about aimlessly. picking up things, or mumbling. Someone experiencing may become : frightened and try to run and struggle. Following the seizure: there will be no memory of it. Complex Partial Seizures:  Complex Partial Seizures usually lasts about 2 to 4 minutes. It may be followed by a state of confusion lasting longer. Once the pattern of seizures is established, it will usually be repeated with each subsequent seizure Simple Partial Seizures :  Simple Partial Seizures result from epileptic activity which is : localized in one part of the brain, usually the cortex or limbic system. Consciousness is not impaired. can talk and answer questions. remember what went on during the seizure. Slide46:  take different forms in different people. They are further classified according to their symptoms: 1-Autonomic Seizures : These seizures are accompanied by autonomic symptoms or signs, such as: abdominal discomfort or nausea . stomach pain. the rumbling sounds of gas moving in the intestines . belching, and vomiting. Slide47:  This has sometimes been referred to as abdominal epilepsy. Other symptoms may include : pallor, flushing, sweating. hair standing on end (piloerection). dilation of the pupils. alterations in heart rate and respiration, and urination. Slide48:  2-Emotional and Other :which arise in or near the temporal lobes . see or hear things that are not there. One feels emotions, often fear, but sometimes sadness, anger, or joy. bad smell or a bad taste. a funny feeling in the pit of the stomach or a choking sensation. These seizures are sometimes called temporal lobe auras.   Slide49:  3-Motor - include : (clonic, jerking) convulsive movements. Jerking typically begins in one area of the body -- the face, arm, leg, or trunk --. may spread to other parts of the body. These seizures are sometimes called JacksonIan motor seizures. . Slide50:  4-Sensory Seizures - consist of a sensory experience. The person may see lights. hear a buzzing sound. or feel tingling or numbness in a part of the body. These seizures are sometimes called JacksonIan sensory seizures. Simple Partial Seizures:  Simple Partial Seizures usually last just a few seconds. although they may be longer. If there are no convulsions, they may not be obvious to the onlooker. Simple Partial Seizures:  Simple Partial Seizures In some children lead to complex partial seizures, or to tonic-clonic convulsions UNCLASSIFIED SEIZURES:  UNCLASSIFIED SEIZURES Includes all seizures that : cannot be classified because of inadequate or incomplete data and some that defy classification in hitherto described categories. This includes some neonatal seizures, rhythmic eye movements, chewing, and swimming movements. CONDITIONS Mimic Seizures:  CONDITIONS Mimic Seizures Sometimes children have symptoms that closely resemble epileptic seizures, but which are not. For example: BREATH HOLDING SPELLS. GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX . Benign Paroxysmal Vertigo. NIGHT TERRORS. SYNCOPE. PROLONGED QT SYNDROME. Shuddering Attacks. Breath-holding spells:  Breath-holding spells are common in upset or mildly injured toddlers. briefly stop breathing. The child may turn either pale or blue. Generalized tonic-clonic movements are sometimes, but not always, observed. Children who have breath-holding spells outgrow them eventually. no treatment is necessary. Types of epilepsy in children:  Types of epilepsy in children begin at any time of life . most common in children under five years. varies from person to person. children with epilepsy generally have seizures that respond well to medication . they enjoy a normal and active childhood. More than half will outgrow their seizures as they mature. Types of epilepsy in children:  Types of epilepsy in children Epilepsy in children has also been classified by syndrome. Using : 1-the age at onset of seizures. 2-cognitive development . 3- neurologic examination. 4-description of seizure type. 5- EEG findings, including the background rhythm, it has been possible to classify approximately 50% of childhood seizures into specific syndrome. Risk factors in children:  Risk factors in children Babies who are small for their gestational age Babies who have seizures in the first month of life Babies who are born with abnormal brain structures Bleeding into the brain Abnormal blood vessels in the brain Serious brain injury or lack of oxygen to the brain Brain tumors Infections of the brain: abscess, meningitis, or encephalitis Stroke resulting from blockage of arteries Cerebral palsy Mental handicap Seizures occurring within days after head injury ("early posttraumatic seizures") Family history of epilepsy or fever-related seizures Fever-related (febrile) seizures that are unusually long Types of epilepsy in children:  Types of epilepsy in children Examples of epilepsy syndromes include: 1- infantile spasms (West syndrome). 2- benign myoclonic epilepsy of infancy. 3- the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. 4- febrile convulsions. 5- Landau-Kleffner syndrome. 6- benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (rolandic epilepsy). 7- Rasmussen encephalitis. 8- juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (Janz syndrome). 9- Lafora disease (progressive myoclonic epilepsy). Remember:  Remember Not everything that looks like a seizure is a seizure. And not every seizure Is an epileptic seizure. Epilepsy is not necessarily a lifelong disorder Slide63:  Dr.abdulkafi al-kassab Thank you DR.Abdulkafi al-kassab Benign Rolandic Epilepsy :  Benign Rolandic Epilepsy Benign Rolandic epilepsy (also known as benign partial epilepsy of childhood) accounts for more than one-third of all cases of epilepsy that begin in middle childhood, accounting for 16 percent of those beginning before age 15. There is a family history in 18 percent of cases. Rolandic epilepsy is the most common type of benign partial epilepsy. Seizures start as simple partial, usually beginning in the face. There may be drooling and temporary inability to speak, although consciousness is preserved. The seizures then generalize to tonic-clonic convulsions :  Rolandic epilepsy is the most common type of benign partial epilepsy. Seizures start as simple partial, usually beginning in the face. There may be drooling and temporary inability to speak, although consciousness is preserved. The seizures then generalize to tonic-clonic convulsions Benign Rolandic Epilepsy Benign Rolandic Epilepsy:  Benign Rolandic Epilepsy Most of the seizures are nocturnal and occur during sleep. Neurological and other functioning is usually normal, while the EEG shows a dramatic focal spike most often in the centrotemporal regions of the brain. Most children are seizure free five years after onset; by age 14, 95 percent will have undergone permanent remission Childhood Absence Epilepsy :  Childhood Absence Epilepsy Childhood absence epilepsy (also called petit mal epilepsy, pyknolepsy) accounts for 2 to 4 percent of all cases of epilepsy in children. Seizures are non-convulsive staring spells associated with a distinct 3 per second spike and wave EEG pattern Childhood Absence Epilepsy:  Childhood Absence Epilepsy Children with this syndrome are otherwise normal; 40 percent outgrow the seizures, and as a group their I.Q. scores are 10 points above average. The syndrome is inherited (probably autosomal dominant trait ). Childhood Absence Epilepsy:  Childhood Absence Epilepsy Despite its overall benign nature, approximately half of the children with absence epilepsy can expect to have a generalized tonic clonic seizure. The risk is higher if the EEG background readings are abnormal, or if the child has neurological deficits. The risk is reduced if seizures are quickly controlled with medication. Childhood Absence Epilepsy:  Childhood Absence Epilepsy REMISSION OF CHILDHOOD ABSENCE EPILEPSY IS MOST LIKELY WHEN THE CHILD IS YOUNG AT ONSET, THE SEIZURES ARE EASILY CONTROLLED WITH MEDICATION AND THERE ARE NO OTHER NEUROLOGICAL PROBLEMS. Juvenile Absence Epilepsy :  Juvenile Absence Epilepsy All children with juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) have absence seizures but usually they are limited to a few episodes per day.clonic-tonic may also occur, These seizures often occur shortly after awakening but they can take place randomly throughout the day. Myoclonic seizures may also occur, but they are infrequent and inconspicuous. Juvenile Absence Epilepsy:  Juvenile Absence Epilepsy Juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) is relatively common. The seizures begin near or after puberty, between 10 and 17 years of age, in young people with normal intelligence and neurologic function. The EEG shows generalized spike SpikeAn EEG pattern strongly correlated with seizures; CT and MRI scans of the brain are normal. Little is known about the causes of JAE, but it is felt to be similar to childhood absence epilepsy . JUVENILE MYOCLONIC EPILEPSY (JANZ SYNDROME):  JUVENILE MYOCLONIC EPILEPSY (JANZ SYNDROME) Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy usually begins between the ages of 12 and 16 yr and accounts for approximately 5% of the epilepsies. A gene locus has been identified on frequent chromosome 6p21. Patients note myoclonic jerks on awakening, making hair combing and tooth brushing difficult. As the myoclonus tends to abate later in the morning, most patients do not seek medical advice at this stage and some deny the episodes JUVENILE MYOCLONIC EPILEPSY (JANZ SYNDROME):  JUVENILE MYOCLONIC EPILEPSY (JANZ SYNDROME) A few years later, early morning generalized tonic-clonic seizures develop in association with the myoclonus. The EEG shows a 4–6/sec irregular spike and wave pattern, which is enhanced by photic stimulation. The neurologic examination is normal, and the majority respond dramatically to valproate, which is required lifelong. Discontinuance of the drug causes a high rate of recurrence of seizures. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome :  Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is an extremely destructive disorder which still has many physicians baffled. It affects between 3-10% of children with epilepsy, more commonly males. The peak age for onset is between 3 to 5 years of age with extreme incidence occurring in the first and tenth years of life. There is commonly a history of epilepsy in the family of the affected individual, though there is no known case of familial Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome:  Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome Tonic seizures, the most inherent kind associated with the syndrome, may occur at any time, both day and night. They are usually brief and consciousness is often impaired. Those cases which do appear nocturnally usually occur during the periods of slow-wave sleep in the latter part of the night. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome:  Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome Approximately 5% of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome patients die from inherent problems and complications within 10 years of its onset. The disorder often persists into adulthood causing a multi-faceted array of emotional problems in up to 25% of patients. Almost all patients continue to have disabilities varying from learning arrest, loss of previously-developed skills, language difficulties, and impaired organization of movement. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome:  Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome Approximately 50% of chronically-affected adults are completely dependent; only 17% are completely independent. Unfortunately, the syndrome is resistant to therapy, complicating the possibilities of rehabilitation. BENIGN MYOCLONUS OF INFANCY:  BENIGN MYOCLONUS OF INFANCY Benign myoclonus begins during infancy and consists of clusters of myoclonic movements confined to the neck, trunk, and extremities. The myoclonic activity may be confused with infantile spasms; however, the EEG is normal in patients with benign myoclonus. The prognosis is good, with normal development and the cessation of myoclonus by 2 yr of age. An anticonvulsant is not indicate Landau-Kleffner Syndrome (LKS).:  Landau-Kleffner Syndrome (LKS). This is a rare condition of unknown cause. It is more common in boys and has a mean onset of 51/2 yr. LKS is often confused with autism, in that both conditions are associated with a loss of language function. LKS is characterized by loss of language skills in a previously normal child. At least 70% have an associated seizure disorder. Language regression may be sudden or the speech loss protracted. Landau-Kleffner Syndrome:  Landau-Kleffner Syndrome The aphasia may be primarily receptive or expressive, and auditory agnosia may be so severe that the child is oblivious to everyday sounds. Hearing is normal, but behavioral problems, including irritability and poor attention span, are particularly common. Formal testing often shows normal performance and visual-spatial skills despite poor language. Landau-Kleffner Syndrome:  Landau-Kleffner Syndrome The seizures are of several types, including focal or generalized tonic-clonic, atypical absence, partial complex, and occasionally myoclonic. High-amplitude spike and wave discharges predominate . Landau-Kleffner Syndrome:  Landau-Kleffner Syndrome CT and MRI studies typically yield normal results, and positron-emission tomography (PET) scans have demonstrated either unilateral or bilateral hypometabolism or hypermetabolism. Microscopic examination of surgical specimens has shown minimal gliosis but no evidence of encephalitis. Rasmussen Encephalitis:  Rasmussen Encephalitis This sub acute inflammatory encephalitis is one cause of epilepsia partialis continua. A nonspecific febrile illness may have preceded the onset of focal seizures, which may be frequent or continuous. The onset is usually before age 10 yr. Sequelae include hemiplegia, hemianopia, and aphasia. Rasmussen Encephalitis:  Rasmussen Encephalitis The EEG reveals diffuse paroxysmal activity with a slow background. The disease is progressive and potentially lethal but more often becomes self-limited with significant neurologic deficits. The disease may be due to autoantibodies that bind to and stimulate the glutamate receptors. Studies have identified cytomegalovirus in several surgical specimens of patients with Rasmussen encephalitis. Lafora Disease :  Lafora Disease Lafora disease presents in children between 10 and 18 yr with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Ultimately, myoclonic jerks appear; these become more apparent and constant with progression of the disease. Mental deterioration is a characteristic feature and becomes evident within 1 yr of the onset of seizures. Lafora Disease:  Lafora Disease Neurologic abnormalities, particularly cerebellar and extrapyramidal signs, are prominent findings. The EEG shows polypore-wave discharges, particularly in the occipital region, with progressive slowing and a disorganized background Startle Epilepsy:  Startle Epilepsy Startle epilepsy is a type of reflex epilepsy in which seizures are provoked by loud noises or sudden surprises. Most patients with startle epilepsy are only sensitive to one sensory modality (i.e. temperature, taste, sound, pressure); however, it is the unexpected nature of the stimulus, rather than the sensory modality, that characterizes startle epilepsy. Startle Epilepsy:  Startle Epilepsy Patients with startle epilepsy usually have static cerebral lesions and developmental delay. Many of the patients are hemiparetic, meaning that half of the body is partially paralyzed, and it is the weak side of the body that is primarily involved in the startle seizures. Startle epilepsy is often associated with disorders such as infantile hemiplegia, Down syndrome, anoxic encephalopathy, and cortical dysplastic lesions. Startle Epilepsy:  Startle Epilepsy These seizures usually last less than 30 seconds. The seizure begins with a startle response, followed by a brief tonic phase. Patients sometimes fall to the ground and experience clinic jerks. Responsiveness to the stimulus decreases as a result of repeated exposure to the stimulus. Spontaneous seizures also occur in patients with startle epilepsy, but are infrequent in most cases. Alice in Wonderland Syndrome:  Alice in Wonderland Syndrome People with Alice in Wonderland Syndrome (or AIWS) feel that their body is changing, because of migraines and headaches. They don't just see themselves changing in size, though, but they also see other people, animals and objects look larger or smaller than they actually are. Alice in Wonderland Syndrome:  Alice in Wonderland Syndrome They can also feel that their hearing and sense of touch have changed. Like what happens to Alice in the beginning of the book, some people with epilepsy who also have AIWS can feel like they are falling down a hole. AIWS can also be referred to as Micropsia. Some of the causes of Micropsia are complex partial epilepsy and drugs. Alice in Wonderland Syndrome:  Alice in Wonderland Syndrome Like other types of epilepsy, children are the most affected demographic with Alice in Wonderland Syndrome. Most of the effects of AIWS occur in the dark, where children feel scared the most. Some cough syrup ingredients might cause AIWS and since parents give cough syrup to their children while they are young, they will most likely get it. Alice in Wonderland Syndrome:  Alice in Wonderland Syndrome Other causes for AIWS in children are Epstein-Barr virus and Mononucleosis However, sometimes Micropsia will not last for the entire child's life. Most times, the symptom will last for only one month. Alice in Wonderland Syndrome:  Alice in Wonderland Syndrome Even though, it is mostly caught by children, adults are able to get Alice in Wonderland Syndrome as well . Neonatal Seizures :  Neonatal Seizures neonatal seizures occur in babies soon after birth. As many as 1.5 to 2.5% of newborns have seizures in the first month of life. A further 20% of all seizures in children under 3 years of age are neonatal seizures. Neonatal disorders are generally classified as subtle, clonic, tonic, and myoclonic. Neonatal Seizures:  Neonatal Seizures Subtle attacks are characterized by apneas with cyanosis or hypertonia, episodes of pallor, fixed staring, conjugate eye deviation, finger movements, paroxysmal eye blinking, nystagmus, vasomotor changes, episodic chewing movements, or stereotypic limb movements such as swimming or bicycling motions. Drooling and unusual alertness may accompany neonatal seizures. While these abnormal behavioral patterns in infants correspond to their seizure types, not all such clinical events are consistently related to EEG discharges and thus are not all epileptic in origin. Neonatal Seizures:  Neonatal Seizures Neonatal seizures may be caused by various metabolic problems, brain damage, or a lack of oxygen during the prenatal period. Cerebral dysmorphism, prenatal infection and vascular occlusion, maternal drug abuse, and a family history of epilepsy can complicate the newborn's health and may increase the risk of seizures. Furthermore, the seizures themselves may impede brain growth, resulting in cerebral palsy, mental retardation, or epilepsy at a later time Myth or Fact:  Myth or Fact Myth #1 -- Epilepsy is rare Fact --- More than 2.5 million Americans have epilepsy. Myth or Fact:  Myth or Fact Myth #2 -- Epilepsy is contagious Fact --- You cannot catch epilepsy from another person! Therefore it is not contagious. Myth or Fact:  Myth or Fact Myth #3 -- Epilepsy is a psychological condition Fact --- Epilepsy is a medical condition. Seizures are the result of an excessive and disorderly discharge of electrical energy in the brain. Myth or Fact:  Myth or Fact Myth #4 -- Epilepsy is a form of mental illness Fact --- Epilepsy is a functional, physical problem, not a mental one. Myth or Fact:  Myth or Fact Myth #5 -- Persons with epilepsy are “epileptics.” Fact --- Persons with epilepsy are individuals who experience chronic, recurrent seizures and prefer being described as "persons with epilepsy.“ Myth or Fact:  Myth or Fact Myth #6 --You have to be born with epilepsy Fact --- Epilepsy often first appears in children and young adults, although anyone can develop epilepsy at any time. --- Myth or Fact:  Myth or Fact Myth #7 -- Epilepsy is a lifelong disorder Fact --- Epilepsy is not necessarily a lifelong disorder. Many persons with epilepsy will not have seizures or require medication all of their lives. Myth or Fact:  Myth or Fact Myth #8 -- You can’t prevent epilepsy Fact --- While no specific cause can be pinpointed in a majority of epilepsy cases, some causes, such as severe head injuries experienced in falling from a bicycle or sustained in an automobile accident, have been identified. This is why helmet safety is so important for children as a preventive measure. Myth or Fact:  Myth or Fact Myth #9 -- Epilepsy cannot be treated or cured Fact --- There is no known cure for epilepsy. However, modern treatment methods can achieve full control of seizures in a majority of cases. According to the EFA, 80 percent of those on medication have complete control of seizures. Myth or Fact:  Myth or Fact Within the past 15 years,several new drugs have been developed to help control seizures, and surgery is an option for some patients. Many people who have epilepsy lead productive, normal lives. Currently there is no cure, but some children tend to outgrow the condition. Myth or Fact:  Myth or Fact Myth #10 -- Epilepsy is a disease Fact --- Epilepsy is a neurological condition characterized by recurring seizures. Epilepsy is not a disease or a mental illness, and it does not signal emotional instability or lack of intelligence. According to the Epilepsy Foundation of America (EFA), 9 percent of the population will have a seizure at some point in their lives. Of this group, 3 percent will develop epilepsy. Thank you:  Thank you Dr.abdulkafi al-kassab

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