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Published on December 29, 2007

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The Pedagogical TICKIT: Researching Different Online Instructional Methods:  The Pedagogical TICKIT: Researching Different Online Instructional Methods Curt Bonk, Indiana University Co-Director of TICKIT Program Associate Professor President, CourseShare.com cjbonk@indiana.edu http://php.indiana.edu/~cjbonk TICKIT:  TICKIT TICKIT Teacher Institute for Curriculum Knowledge about Integration of Technology (http://www.indiana.edu/~tickit) http://www.indiana.edu/~tickit/ What is Technology Integration?:  What is Technology Integration? Technology integration is when a teacher thinks about and utilizes technology to accomplish some teaching and learning goal. It is integrated when the thought and action occur seamlessly. It is integrated when the learners do not need extensive direction or training with each new tool or technology. It is integrated when the form of the technology is not prespecified and the teacher does not describe him or herself a certain type of technology teacher (e.g., a Web instructor or an expert at movie digitalization). (Bonk, March 7, 2001) What is Thoughtful Use of Tech?:  What is Thoughtful Use of Tech? Thoughtful use of technology enhances, extends, or transforms one's teaching and learning environment. It can enhance it by enabling learners to do something they could not before. It can extend it by enabling learners to work with others or other resources that they could not before. And it can transform it by enabling learners to generate content or curriculum materials for the class. (Bonk, March 7, 2001) Why Are Teachers Resistant? Hannafin and Savenye (1993):  Why Are Teachers Resistant? Hannafin and Savenye (1993) Believe the software is poorly designed Become frustrated in how to use. Do not want to look stupid Do not believe that computers enhance learning Fear losing control and being in the center See computers competing with other academic tasks See time and effort to use as too great Fear upsetting unsupportive administrators What Skills Do We Need to Promote in 21st Century???:  What Skills Do We Need to Promote in 21st Century??? Locate and select information Segment info into useful categories Interpret and summarize information from multiple sources Collaborating productively in teams Understanding multiple perspectives Reasoning and thinking critically Slide9:  Overview of TICKIT In-service teacher education program Rural schools in southern Indiana Primarily school-based Supported by participating school systems, Arthur Vining Davis Foundations and Indiana University TICKIT Overview (con’t):  TICKIT Overview (con’t) Just completed our fourth year Funded for at least 2002-2003 Cohorts of five teachers from each school corporation Usually 5-6 corporations First two years all grade levels; now MS & HS only TICKIT Program Description: Program Elements:  TICKIT Program Description: Program Elements Teach two class technology projects Give back to school Asynchronous conferencing Progress reports and idea exchange Action research and reporting Written reports to course instructor Oral report to TICKIT colleagues Oral report to a local school group Formal report at a state conference TICKIT Program Description: ACOT Principles Used:  TICKIT Program Description: ACOT Principles Used Situate staff development activities in classrooms Teams of teachers, not individuals Constructivist learning approach modeled by facilitators Ongoing conversation and reflection about practice Teachers develop lessons or units, and actually teach them Provide long-term follow-up support TICKIT Goals:  TICKIT Goals Knowledge, skill, & confidence Thoughtful infusion of technology Help schools capitalize on their technology investments Deeper student learning Leadership cadres in schools Link schools and university Slide18:  TICKIT Training and Projects: Web: Web quests, Web search, Web edit/pub. Includes class, department, or school website. Write: Electronic newsletters, book reviews. Tools: Photoshop, Inspiration, PowerPoint. Telecom: e-mail with foreign countries Key pals. Computer conferencing: Nicenet.org. Digitizing: using camera, scanning, digitizing. Videoconferencing: connecting classes. Web Course: HighWired.com, MyClass.net, Lightspan.com, eBoard.com Technology Integration Ideas:  Technology Integration Ideas Collab with students in other countries Make Web resources accessible Experts via computer conferencing (or interview using e-mail) Reflect & Discuss on ideas on the Web. Put lesson plans on Web. Peer mentoring. Other: role play, scav hunts. TICKIT Techniques:  TICKIT Techniques Reading Reactions Debates Critical Friend Interactions Expert Chats and Team Chats Web Resource Reviews Free Technology Reviews Technology Integration Reviews Thoughtful Reflections Role Play Gallery Tours 1. Reading Reactions:  1. Reading Reactions Give a set of articles. Post reactions to 3-4 articles that intrigued them. What is most impt in readings? React to postings of 3-4 peers. Summarize posts made to their reaction. (Note: this could also be done in teams) 2. Instructor Generated Virtual Debate (or student generated):  2. Instructor Generated Virtual Debate (or student generated) Select controversial topic (with input from class) Divide class into subtopic pairs or quads: 1-2 critics and 1-2 defenders. Assign each pair a perspective or subtopic Critics and defenders post initial position stmts Rebut person in one’s pair Reply to 2+ positions with comments or q’s Formulate and post personal positions. 3. Critical/Constructive Friends, Email Pals, Web Buddies:  3. Critical/Constructive Friends, Email Pals, Web Buddies Assign a critical friend (perhaps based on commonalities). Post weekly updates of projects, send reminders of due dates, help where needed. Provide criticism to peer (I.e., what is strong and weak, what’s missing, what hits the mark) as well as suggestions for strengthening. In effect, critical friends do not slide over weaknesses, but confront them kindly and directly. Reflect on experience. 4. Electronic Guests & Mentoring:  4. Electronic Guests & Mentoring Find article or topic that is controversial Invite person associated with that article (perhaps based on student suggestions) Hold real time chat Pose questions Discuss and debrief (i.e., did anyone change their minds?) (Alternatives: Email Interviews with experts Assignments with expert reviews) 5. Web Resource Reviews:  5. Web Resource Reviews 6. Free Technology Reviews:  6. Free Technology Reviews Slide33:  7. Technology Integration Reviews Slide35:  8. Thoughtful Reflections on Teaching Slide36:  8. Thoughtful Team Reflections 9. Role Play:  9. Role Play A. Role Play Authors Write a reading reaction, debate, or reflection paper as if you were one of the authors B. Assume Persona of Scholar Enroll famous people in your course Students assume voice of that person for one or more sessions Post a 300-700 word debate to one or more of the readings as if you were that person. Enter debate topic or Respond to debate topic Respond to rdg reflections of others or react to own 10. Gallery Tours:  10. Gallery Tours Assign Topic or Project (e.g., Team or Class White Paper, Bus Plan, Study Guide, Glossary, Journal, Model Exam Answers) Students Post to Web Experts Review and Rate Try to Combine Projects Slide39:  10. Gallery Tours Basically Allow for Pedagogical Choice:  Basically Allow for Pedagogical Choice Give many choices. Allow to complete any of them. Provide structure on due dates. Send reminders. Paper #1. The TICKIT Program Model (in review, Journal of Educational Computing Research):  Paper #1. The TICKIT Program Model (in review, Journal of Educational Computing Research) Classroom Curriculum Projects Provide structure for teacher goal-setting and implementation Apply what learn by developing and teaching units Teacher Choice Do not persuade to use a particular theory or method Urge teachers to integrate technology into what they already do to add value Present an array of possibilities for integration projects TICKIT Program Model, Con’t:  TICKIT Program Model, Con’t Expect Systematic Evaluation, Self-reflection, and Revision of Practice Provide for electronic and face to face collaboration with colleagues and coaching by TICKIT staff Provide audiences and venues for reports and reflections on practice Provide a Structure for Leadership Cadres to Assist Other Teachers Locally Paper #2. Online Pedagogy & Mentoring (in press, Technology and Teacher Education):  Paper #2. Online Pedagogy & Mentoring (in press, Technology and Teacher Education) Effectiveness of reading reactions, debates, and critical friend activities Frequency of discussion categories Dialogue content and depth Justification (support of claims) Scaffolding and apprenticeship Attitudes toward dialogue Slide47:  (Bonk, Ehman, & Hixon, 2000) TICKIT Staff Mentoring & Assistance (direct instruction and explanations = 0; Feedback = 24%, Social Acknowledgements = 24%) Surface vs. Deep Posts:  Surface vs. Deep Posts Surface Processing making judgments without justification, stating that one shares ideas or opinions already stated, repeating what has been said asking irrelevant questions i.e., fragmented, narrow, and somewhat trite. In-depth Processing linked facts and ideas, offered new elements of information, discussed advantages and disadvantages of a situation, made judgments that were supported by examples and/or justification. i.e., more integrated, weighty, and refreshing. Findings: Peer Social Discourse:  Findings: Peer Social Discourse Focus: 50% on teaching and school experience Off Task: 7% total; nearly all in critical friends Referencing: approximately 50% more peer praise in critical friend activities. Referencing: referred to own teaching 3 times more often than to others (i.e., egocentric) Justification: 77% claims unsupported; 20% referenced classroom & other experience Depth: about 80% of posts at surface level Other Findings:  Other Findings Critical friend dialogue involved more peer support, help requests, social acknowledgements Critical friend postings perceived more beneficial to classroom practice Reading reactions & debates involved more content focus Reading reactions & debates viewed as “just another task” They would recommend electronic conferencing to other teachers Critical Friend Post Example:  Critical Friend Post Example “Beverly: Before I forget, I want to thank you again for your invaluable help at the ICE conference. I get used to using a particular piece of equipment or program, and it’s hard for me to adapt quickly. You saved the day. One thing I have learned from using technology is that we need to depend upon each other for support. We are all in this boat together.” Critical Friend Post Example:  Critical Friend Post Example “This is going to sound ‘gushy’ but I JUST LOVE TO READ YOUR WRITING! What a vocabulary you have! OK, are you/were you a language arts teacher, do you read a lot (sic), did you take Latin, or are you just plain smart? You have a real talent! As I read your response to the article…I found myself being pulled right in. You really had some thought-provoking comments. And at the end of a teaching day, the fact that anyone could get me to think is something. …” TICKIT Teacher Evaluation Examples:  TICKIT Teacher Evaluation Examples “Thank you! A poor tired out “old broad” has a new lease on teaching” “This class was very helpful. I gained a lot of confidence as a technology user from this class.” “The door is now open. I will continue to try to find technological ways to teach them.” “This was the best program I have ever been involved with as a teacher. It has also had the most impact on my teaching and subsequently, my teaching.” Paper #3. Levels of Technology Implementation (LoTi):  Paper #3. Levels of Technology Implementation (LoTi) Determine the presence of possible relationships between long-term professional development and teachers’ levels of technology implementation. Explore these relationships and discuss implications that such relationships have for professional development. Apples and Oranges. . .but:  Apples and Oranges. . .but What? Who? When?:  What? Who? When? Participants--Five cohorts of teachers Three from past (85 teachers); one from the present (25 teachers); one from the future (28 teachers in control) Survey 23 Questions dev by TICKIT staff LoTi instrument (50 questions) 10 subscales Eight levels of implementation Current instructional practices Personal computer use Sample LoTi Questions:  Sample LoTi Questions I am motivated to find ways to use the older as well as the newer computers in my classroom. I access the Internet quite frequently. I allocate time for students to practice their computer skills on the classroom computer(s). I prefer that my students go to a computer lab for instruction without me. It is easy for me to design student-centered, integrated curriculum units that use the classroom computer(s) in a seamless fashion. Additional Questions:  Additional Questions Do you have an Internet connection in your classroom? Estimate how many hours of curriculum-based professional development (e.g. performance-based assessment, thinking skills strategies, inquiry-based learning) you have received over the past two years? Describe one or two ways that you use or have used technology in your classroom that have the most impact on student learning. Initial Results:  Initial Results Means of LoTi Instrument:  Means of LoTi Instrument Conclusions and Discussion:  Conclusions and Discussion Long-term professional development seems to have an effect on teachers’ levels of technology implementation especially in the upper two levels expansion and refinement. Construct validity of LoTi in question. Six Overall Lessons Learned:  Six Overall Lessons Learned Avoid Teachers Who Are Compelled By School Administrators Into Participating (and do always believe admin) Teachers Respond to Challenge, High Expectations Requiring Projects in a Graduate Course Framework Creates Stress But Pays Off For Most Teachers Asynchronous Conferencing Requires a Lot of Structure and Meaning For Teachers Teach Technology Use in Teacher’s Environment A Local Leader is Important For a Cohort of Teachers General TICKIT Outcomes:  General TICKIT Outcomes Provides structured, project based learning about thoughtful tech infusion for teachers Adds to teachers’ competence/confidence Builds leadership cadres in schools Provides graduate level recognition of teachers’ accomplishments Links schools and university Supports small, rural schools Questions We Still Need to Answer:  Questions We Still Need to Answer Does student learning increase as a result of TICKIT? Do TICKIT teachers continue to infuse technology into their curriculum? Are “communities of practice” being built? Is there a TICKIT impact with other teachers? Can we short-circuit phases of teachers’ technology infusion development (ACOT)? Ok, who wants a TICKIT? And, who has a TICKIT? http://www.iub.edu/~tickit:  Ok, who wants a TICKIT? And, who has a TICKIT? http://www.iub.edu/~tickit

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