Pdf Oppgave 3

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Information about Pdf Oppgave 3

Published on October 13, 2009

Author: kribek

Source: slideshare.net

The boundaries between sea and land is constantly changing. Claiming land from the sea for new development. To meet the need for additonal housing, industrial areas and recreational spaces. expansion of Malmö 1860 1940 2000

City of Malmö has a long border with Øresund. Roughly the city´s coastline are almost 2 mil long. Malmö Basically hele water front today consists of infill lots after conquering ov shallow water areas during the past 150 years. Nearly 1500 hectares of shallow areas have been lled out during this time and no more a 35% of the original meadows exist along the coast. The dark gray on the map are artificial soil. The city has slipped further and further away from the sea. The expansion of the port outside of Malmo's most central parts, have made that the city is moving farther and farther away from the sea. When the port grows on land llings out to sea, the city has went itself against the available land further inland. Immediate contact with the sea has been broken. This division of the city is manly the reason that Malmø is perceived as a inland city as much as a port city. A walk through Malmö waterside areas, I discovered that the buildings in most places have very little direct contact with water. Access to the sea is limited at times both visually and physically, which has the e ect that the city experienced as separate from the Øresund Western Harbour 219 ha = 2 190 000 m2 To transform the urban water fronts is now a internationelt phenomenon. It startet in late1950 with the planning of disused industrial and port areas. The biggest reason is that new technology has resulted in a change of shipping organizations worldwide, while the urban port facilities have been concentrated on more rational positions. The traditional port dependent industry and shipbuilding have declined considerably, which has the consequence that a large, attractive areas, often in very central locations has been transformed into new residential mixd uses. The Western Harbour is currently being transformed from an industrial area into a complete urban quarter with accommodation, services, workplaces and educational facilities. Filling has occurred in stages and the new areas are used primarily for port, industrial and recreation.

Scale Bergen Malmö Vestre havnens areal utfylt i Bergen 3000 m ca 7 millioner m2. Vestre Havnen 2 190 000 m2 219 ha i Bergen. Utfylling av vestre havnen: 219 ha = 2 190 000 m2 Utfylling av Dokken: ca 200 000 m2

Area Urban density Tokyo 2187 km2 13,416 /km² London 1597 4,761/km2 New York 833 10,606/km2 Paris 105 km2 24,400 /km² ? Malmö 71 km2 3,596 km2 New York Manhattan (density 10,606/km2) Amsterdam Borneo (Amsterdam density 4,459) Comparison of Land Use: Tokyo Manhattan London Paris Malmö Housing Open areas Others Roads Roads/transportation facilities Paris (density 24,400 /km² ? Tokyo (density 13,416 /km²)

How does the expansion / lling e ect the biotop of øresund? Øresunds situation today: The Baltic Sea is one of the most unique marine ecosystems in the world. Not only is the Baltic Sea home to rich levels of biodiversity and wildlife, but it sustains the livelihoods and economies of millions of people in the nine coastal countries who also call the Baltic Sea region home. s ea tic Bal T he Øresund summer 2007 Most people now connect eutrophication with the yearly algal blooms that we are now used to seeing each summer. We see them as a greenish, yellowish, brownish or reddish layer on the sea surface or as a thick ‘soup’ in the water. The Baltic Sea, however, has paid a heavy price from decades of human activity in and around the sea -over-fishing, irresponsible shipping practices, physical exploitation and the pressures from agriculture and industry continue to negatively impact its sensitive environment. As a result, the Baltic is now one of the most threatened marine ecosystems on the planet. The main reason why fish and other aquatic animals die in the wake of a bloom is the shortage of oxygen that arises when large masses of algae decompose.

Eutrophication it is a process where bodies of water, such as lakes, estuaries, or slow-moving streams, receive excess nutrients that stimulate excessive plant growth. This enhanced plant growth, often called an algal bloom, reduces dissolved oxygen in the water. This affects the ecosystem and might change it totally. About 80% of all nutrients in the sea come from land-based activities, including sewage, industrial and municipal waste and agricultural run-off. The rest is mainly from nitrous gasses, emitted when burning fossil fuels, from traffic, industry, power generation and heating. The nutrients make it easier for algal blooms to occur and when such algae die off, they use oxygen to decompose. If too much oxygen is used up, marine life cannot survive there. a dead zone. Global warming is also stimulating eutrophication as higher temperatures in the Baltic Sea region increases the decomposition rates of the algae, compounding the effects of the nutrients. Agriculture is one of the main economic activities in the Baltic Sea region. Almost 25% of the 1.7 million sq km drainage area around the sea is used for agricultural cultivation, with millions of people engaged in farming. The loss of ecological functions on land – the nutrient retention capacity of wetlands, floodplains, coastal lagoons and free-flowing rivers –has added substantially to the eutrophication problem. Up to 90% of wetlands in the southern part of the Baltic Sea region have been drained over the past century. The extensive industrialisation of farming in Western Europe during the 1960s and 1970s, farms began using artificial fertilisers to increase yields. This meant an increase in the amount of nutrients – particularly phosphorus and nitrogen put into the system, creating a large nutrient surplus.

Western harbour, a summer day 1 - 2 meters Waterfronts height above water 2 - 3 meters 3 -4 meters WHAT TO DO IF AN ALGAL BLOOM OCCURS The effect What could bee the effect for Wester Harbour if the pollution and the global warming continues on: Malmøs new waterfront of a sea rise of 2 meters. Fish, birds and mammals can all be killed by algal toxins. Keep pets and livestock away Blooming blue_green algae from affected shores and waters. in Øresund 2007

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