Pdc maharshi mehta occucon

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Published on March 9, 2014

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Hazard and Risk Assessment PDC on Hazard and Risk Assessment Occucon 2014, Goa February 11, 2014 Maharshi Mehta, CSP, CIH International Safety Systems, Inc., Washingtonville New York, USA www.issehs.com

Agenda   Introduction to Industrial Hygiene Hazards – Chemical Physical and Biologcal Agents      Hazards and Risk Exposure Limits Risk Assessment Tools Case Studies Demonstration of Risk Assessment tools ©International Safety Systems, Inc. www.issehs.com

Industrial Hygiene Hazard Anticipation-Hazards likely to be present? Hazard Recognition-What are health hazards? Risk Evaluation-Exposed to health hazard? How much? Risk Control-How can exposure be reduced? So that.. Health risk is minimized And potential for occupational illnesses, material loss are reduced and the company liability minimized

The Need     Prevent occupational illness and injury by reducing/eliminating health risk Significant cost savings by reducing/recovering particulate/vapor emissions Regulatory requirements Productivity increase •In the Europe, 150 million workdays are lost each year due to work accidents and illnesses and the insurance costs 20 billion Euros •Annual cost of occupational illnesses and injuries in Latin America is about $75 billion

Exposure Limits     Airborne concentration of a substance Repeated exposure to the substance below exposure limit day after day is unlikely to produce adverse health effects in healthy workers High Health Hazard Chemicals have low exposure limits. Examples of exposure limits at Huntsman – Hydrochloric acid 5 ppm ceiling limit – Ammonia 25 ppm long term limit for 8 hours exposure Exposure limits are not a fine line between safe and dangerous concentrations

Organizations Establishing Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs)   American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), USA Local Regulatory Agencies – Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), USA – Health and Safety Executive (HSE), UK – Technical Rules for Hazardous Substances (TRGS), Germany  GE Established OELs – More stringent

Units of Exposure Limits Expressed as concentration of the airborne substance in a volume of air 1m Vapor/gaseous airborne substances:  ppm (parts per million)- the parts of airborne substance per million parts of air  ppb (parts per billion)- the parts of airborne substance per billion parts of air 1m 1 mg Concentration of airborne substance is 1 mg/m3 1m . Particulate airborne substances:  mg/m3 - milligrams of airborne substance per cubic meter of air  µg/m3 - micrograms of airborne substance per cubic meter of air Airborne fibers: Fibers/cc -fibers per cubic centimeter of air

What are Hazards and Risks      Hazard – Chemical, Physical and or Biological agent that can cause harm Risk - The likelihood that the potential for harm will be caused by hazards Hazardous substances are present most of the time Risk is dependant on (a) human exposure to hazards and (b) degree of exposures Degree of exposure is dependant on controls provided and work practices followed Industrial Hygiene Risk Assessment (IHRA) is process of determining degree of health RISK based on degree of HAZARDS and extent of EXPOSURE

The Need    Assist in determining: – the need for exposure controls – respiratory protection and types of respirators – if an illness is work related or not Assist in protecting company in occupational illness litigations Targeted medical surveillance – Medical surveillance focused on potentially exposed individuals

Methodology - Planning      Obtain and review process information, chemical lists before hand Obtain and review past mentoring data and historical assessment Review floor plan and mark areas CRA to ensure all areas are covered Review applicable regulation and standards Obtain list of chemicals and ingredients

Where and When Should Chemical Risk Assesment be Done   Where: – Include all operations and activities – Include all non-routine operations and activities such as, maintenance – Include activities with no apparent health risk also  E.g., Warehouse; potential risk from noise and carbon monoxide (CO) from forklift may be present When – Before any new process begins – When change in process occurs Required for Employees, Contract Employees, Temporary Workers

Chemical Risk Assessment        Degree of hazards – Hydrochloric acid and ammonia Frequency and duration of handling/exposure – How long tanker unloading is done The risk of the material becoming airborne – % of HCl and does it become airborne Historical air monitoring results (if available) Existing engineering controls and work practices followed – How do we collect QC sample Effectiveness of exposure control is determined or not Chemical properties: volatility, particle size, dryness – Fly ash , coal dust   Ingestion Skin contact

Site Visit         Determine frequency/duration of operation/personal exposures Determine approximate quantities of materials used Observe controls - make subjective assessment of effectiveness Interview workers and/or supervisors at each stage of process Gather data on raw materials, finished products, byproducts Collect relevant MSDSs Note specific PPE used Start to complete Risk Ranking

Rank Frequency Duration Daily 1 Health Hazard Weekly Minimal (under 30 Any / Minimal minutes) (under 5 hours) monthly Yearly Any / Minimal (under 20 hours) Any / Minimal (under 250 hours) Chemicals API OEL in range 3.1 to 10 mg/m3 or > 1000 ppm OHC #1, OEL >1000 µg/m3 2 OEL in range OHC# 2, OEL 0.51 to 3 About 30 100 µg/m3 - 1000 3 min to < 2 5 to 15 hours 20 to 60 hours 250 to 500 mg/m or 101 µg/m3 to 1000 ppm hour per week per month hours per year 3 About ½ Use More Shift (2 to 15 to 25 hours 60 to 80 hours Frequent 4 hours) per week per month Basis OEL in range OHC# 2, OEL 0.01 to 0.5 100 µg/m3 - 1000 3 mg/m or 10 to µg/m3 100 ppm 4 About ¾ Shift (4 to 25 to 30 hours 7 hours) per week 5 (over 7 hours) Use More Frequent Basis Use More Frequent Basis Use More Frequent Basis Use More Frequent Basis Use More Frequent Basis OEL < 0.01 OH Cat# 3, OEL mg/m3 or < 10 10 µg/m3 - 100 ppm µg/m3 Airborne Potential Low Medium Engineering Control Skin Hazard Exposure Potential Total enclosure No skin hazard, validated by IH temporary effects monitoring Total enclosure NOT validated High Moderate (LEV) validated Probable skin Short term irritants, materials skin may cause exposure dermatitis. OH Cat# 4, OEL 1 µg/m3 - 10 µg/m3 6 Cat# 4, OEL 0.01 µg/m3 - 1 µg/m3 7 OH Cat# 4, OEL < 0.01 µg/m3 8 Skin Exposure Moderate not Validated Will cause skin Repeatedirritation, sensitizers, long Skin corrosives (acids, exposure caustics, nickel). Non-fixed controls movable LEV 9 ©International Safety Systems, Inc. 10 www.issehs.com No controls Materials toxic to skin (ACGIH) Skin Skin exposure certain

Final Risk Ranking Criteria Description <50 Acceptable – process is well controlled and personal exposures are obviously unlikely to become significant – no further action required other than periodic review Potentially acceptable but it may be possible to further reduce exposures by adopting simple recommendations Further evaluation needed – the qualitative assessment has not provided 200- enough information to be confident that personal exposures are 400 acceptable; air monitoring may be required. 50-200 > 400 Very High Risk -Implement exposure controls immediately ©International Safety Systems, Inc. www.issehs.com Final Risk Ranki ng 1 2 3 4

Case Study-HCl unloading         37% HCl, how hazardous the chemical is? Ceiling Limit of 2 ppm Unloading is done from tanker Closed piping Unloading is done for 2 hours/week Is it harmful through skin? Skin Contact likely? What is final risk ©International Safety Systems, Inc. www.issehs.com

Ranking Frequency Duration Ranking? 2. Hazard Ranking? 3. Is it becoming easily airborne? Ranking? 4. Are exposure controls provided? Effective? Ranking? Inhalation ranking multiplication of 1x2x3x4 ranking Now what is inhalation ranking? 1. ©International Safety Systems, Inc. www.issehs.com

Skin Ranking Is HCl very harmful to skin? What is ranking? 2. Is skin contact likely? What is ranking? Skin Exposure ranking is 1x2 What is skin exposure risk? 1. Total Risk is Inhalation Ranking + Skin Ranking What is Total Ranking? Is risk acceptable? What needs to be done ©International Safety Systems, Inc. www.issehs.com

Observations and Recommendations     Very important as observation based degree of risk is more important than number based risk Provides bases for ranking used Obtain and enter as much of the pertinent information as possible based on observations and interviews While making recommendations, consider – – –  “Quick Fix” Feasibility Cost effectiveness Mention PPEs used, if any

Quantitative Exposure Assessment  Chemical exposure monitoring – – – –  Direct reading instruments Detector tubes (Colorimetric tubes) Passive monitoring with Diffusion badges/tubes Active monitoring with sampling pumps Noise monitoring – Area noise monitoring – Personal noise exposure monitoring (Dosimetry)     Heat stress monitoring Ionizing radiation monitoring Vibration monitoring Bio-aerosol monitoring

Sampling media Active Air Monitoring Sampling media Sampling pump

Active Air Monitoring  Process: – Air is drawn through a sampling media, kept in the breathing zone of the person potentially exposed, with a battery operated sampling pump – The sampling media is analyzed and weight of contaminant determined – The weight is divided by the volume of air drawn through the media to determine contaminant concentration     Substance-specific accurate identification of exposure Corporate and regulatory requirements Acceptable in litigation Determines exposure during actual work. Not an instantaneous concentration determination as in direct reading instrument

Quality Assurance in Exposure Monitoring      Health of working people depends on exposure monitoring results Ensure sampling duration is closed to the exposure duration. – Do not miss beginning and ending of shifts as high exposure may occur during this time (e.g., cleaning of work area) – Exposure monitoring may have to begin at 6 am if shift starts at 6 am. Ensure calibration of sampling device before and after sampling Ensure sampling device is calibrated annually Ensure sampling time is exact. Ensure sampling time does not end with 0 and 5 (e.g., 8:05 am, 8:10 am)

Demonstration of Risk Assessment Tool and Discussions   Control Of Substances hazardous to Health (COSHH) Risk Assessment Tool Industrial Hygiene Risk Assessment Tool at one of the largest corporations – – – ©International Safety Systems, Inc. www.issehs.com Process Computerized model Data Synthesis and analysis for 2000 + sites globally

COSHH Assessment Tool-Part 1 ©International Safety Systems, Inc. www.issehs.com

COSHH Assessment Part 2 ©International Safety Systems, Inc. www.issehs.com

COSHH Assessment Part 3 ©International Safety Systems, Inc. www.issehs.com

COSHH Assessment Part 4 ©International Safety Systems, Inc. www.issehs.com

Enhanced IH Module A s e s s m e nt w/Ris k A s e s s m e nt inte g ra te d into I m o d ule s s H

Enhanced IH Module (Cont.) Stre a m line d A d N w A s e s s m e nt fo rm d e s Ris k A s e s s m e nt s De ta ils s e c tio n

Enhanced IH Module (Cont.) Ris k A s e s s m e nt De ta ils Pe nd ing fo r a n Ex is ting A s e s s m e nt Re c o rd s s Ris k A s e s s m e nt De ta ils Co m p le te d s

Enhanced IH Module (Cont.) Stre a m line d Ris k A s e s s m e nt De ta ils Fo rm with G uid a nc e M us e o ve rs s o

Enhanced IH Module (Cont) Ris k A s e s s m e nt Wo rkflo w O p tio n to Subm it to Re vie we r s

Enhanced IH Module (Cont.) Risk Assessment Review Option – Special Right Required

HSE (UK) COSHH Essentials  Control banding tool for small to medium size enterprises to do risk assessments for chemicals & mixtures of chemicals  Required information – Type of task – shoveling, drilling – Hazard classification (using risk & safety phrases from MSDS ) – Volatility or dustiness (from guidance material) – Amount used- kg,mg,litres,milliliters

HSE (UK) COSHH Essentials (cont)  System identifies – Control band (control approach) – Produces advice on controlling risk from the chemical being used in the task – Provides written guidance & documentation

ILO Chemical Control Tool kit  Very similar to COSHH Essentials  Does not apply to process dusts or fumes due to the fact that these are not classified by the supplier of individual chemicals  Has general application to many situations in developing countries but susceptible groups (child workers & pregnant women) need to be considered

Stages of the ILO Chemical Control Toolkit

Stage 1 – Hazard Classification

Stage 1 – Hazard Classification (cont)

Stage 2 – How Much is Used

Stage 3 - Dustiness

Stage 3 – Volatility Source: ILO toolkit

Stage 4 – Control Approach Source: ILO toolkit

Stage 5 – Task Specific Control Guidance Sheet Source: ILO toolkit

Stage 5 – Task Specific Control Guidance Sheet Source: ILO toolkit

Stage 5 – Task Specific Control Guidance Sheet Source: ILO toolkit

Lessons Learned     Understanding Hazard is prerequisite to risk assessment Risk Assessment is essential to determine degree exposure controls Comprehensive Risk Assessment reduces over all cost of exposure monitoring and provides opportunity to implement exposure controls before monitoring Above all: Adds few days, months or years in to life of working people. ©International Safety Systems, Inc. www.issehs.com

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