Published on March 1, 2014
Paul McCartney and Subtle Signals: Applications to New Product Development Mark A Hart, NPDP 1 1
Requisites to Coordination • • • • • Individually, John, Paul, George, and Ringo were proficient musicians As a group, the Beatles practiced together for years Musically, they knew what to expect They did not rely on a technology that they could not control They did not rely on delayed feedback from others 2 2
Feed Forward • • • • Use information accumulated in the past to influence the future Benefits from the involvement of proficient practitioners Training precedes performance A control signal that is transmitted from a source to a destination 3 3
Prominent Signal • Crowd noise Subtle Signals • • • • Discernible sounds such as the crash of a cymbal or the rumble from the bass drum Facial expressions of the other musicians including mouth movements Movements of fingers, arms, and feet of the other musicians Interactions with the environment such as instantaneous interaction of the performance and reactions from the crowd 4 4
Feedback • • • • Uses information about current results to influence operation in the present Modifies a system based on interim results Changes the system output May be referred to as closed-loop feedback 5 5
Judiciously Incorporating Subtle Signals • • • • Valuable subtle signals may not be available when they would be the most useful Valuable subtle signals may be overlooked by novices An individual musician may not have the capacity to discern valuable subtle signals from the spurious subtle signals The value of amplifying a particular signal by a specific amount is assessed by the nature of the results and the interaction with the environment 6 6
Incorporating the appropriate subtle signals enabled the Beatles to be proficient performers in environments with nearly overwhelming undesirable noise. 7 7
Coordinated Efforts of Camera Operators • Camera operators were proficient • • individually They formed a cohesive team. They framed every shot without being able to hear the coordinating instructions from the director. 8 8
Mismatch The differences of “our mental images/impressions and the reality it is supposed to represent” (John Boyd, Conceptual Spiral, 1992, 25) 9 9
Impressions and Representation of Reality 10 10
Impressions • • • • • May be faulty or incomplete Impressions are built on assumptions Biases influence impressions Individual observations may be misleading Errors may be unknown. 11 11
Representations of Reality are Influenced by: • Observations • Feedback from decisions • Feedback from actions • Interactions with the environment 12 12
Because representations of reality may be faulty or incomplete, approaches should be developed to detect and correct mismatches 13 13
Address and Improve Mismatches 14 14
Mismatches and the OODA Loop Sketch OODA Loop Sketch adapted from Boyd’s “The Essence of Winning and Losing” 1995 15 15
Rapid feedback and feed forward capabilities minimize the propagation of mistakes 16 16
Proficient craftsman can incorporate selected subtle signals appropriately to achieve valuable results nearly instantaneously. 17 17
Use of Mismatch Approaches • Situations that include preparation, • performance, and retrospective phases Situations with long delays between analysis, plans, actions, and consequences 18 18
Contributions to Mismatches • Prominent signals • Subtle signals • Noise • Interactions 19 19
Applications to Development Experience • Requisites to Coordination • Subtle signals • Feedback • Feed forward • Impressions • Representations of reality • Mismatches 20 20
Recommendations • Invest in opportunity areas such as theory • • and practice Learn to discern valuable subtle signals from the spurious Improve your agility so that you can learn faster than the speed of the market and faster than competitors 21 21
Developing Winners: Assimilating the Insights Encapsulated in Boyd's OODA Loop www.Developing-Winners.com 22 22
Paul McCartney and Subtle Signals: Applications to New Product Development www.OpLaunch.com Twitter: @OpLaunch Mark A Hart 23 27 February 2014 23
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