Patch Antenna and Array

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Published on March 11, 2014

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Session 1A4 Patch Antenna and Array Design and Manufacturing of a Dual-band, Dual-polarized and Dual Fed Perforated Array Patch Antenna Pair T. D. Sudikila, Thierry E. Gilles, .................................................................. 42 Dual-frequency, Two Shorting Pin-loaded Equilateral Triangular Patch Antennas Sultan Can, Kamil Yavuz Kapusuz, Elif Aydin, .................................................... 43 Design of Monopole Antenna Using Coupling Characteristic of Spiral Parasitic Patch Kwangyeol Yoon, Seungwoo Lee, Nam Kim, ....................................................... 45 Design of the Dual-band Planner Monopole Antenna for Coupled Rectangular-loop Structure and T-shape Rectangular Patch Judong Jang, Seung Woo Lee, Nam Kim, .......................................................... 46 Design and Relative Permittivity Determination of an EBG-based Wearable Antenna Nadeen R. Rishani, Mohammed Al-Husseini, Ali El-Hajj, Karim Y. Kabalan, ...................... 47 Antenna Array for IEEE 802.11/a/b MIMO Application Dau-Chyrh Chang, Yi-Jhen Li, Chao-Hsiang Liao, ................................................. 48 Analysis of a Dual Frequency Circular Patch Antenna Sultan Can, Kamil Yavuz Kapusuz, Elif Aydin, .................................................... 49 Design and Simulation of E-shaped Compact Microstrip Antenna for WLAN Applications Mahmoud Abdipour, Gholamreza R. Moradi, Reza Sarraf Shirazi, .................................. 51 A Compact Ultra Wideband EBG Antenna with Band Notched Characteristics Singaravelu Raghavan, Chittipothul Anandakumar, Akkala Subbarao, M. Ramaraj, R. Pandeeswari, 52 41

42 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012 Design and Manufacturing of a Dual-band, Dual-polarized and Dual Fed Perforated Array Patch Antenna Pair T. D. Sudikila and T. E. Gilles Department of Communication, Information, Systems and Signals Royal Military Academy, Brussels, Belgium Abstract— For spaceborne SAR applications, the weight of the large array antennas required is an important factor in the design phase. Moreover, optimum use of a satellite often dictates that several bands are used simultaneously. Finally, polarimetric measurements also require dual polarization. Patch antennas are easy to operate simultaneously in perpendicular linear polarizations, though care must be taken to ensure sufficient cross polarization isolation. An interesting solution to reduce the overall weight of two dual polarized arrays of patch antennas is to embed the high frequency array in the low frequency one. Again, this complex design requires that special attention be paid to the colocation and crossings of the feeding networks, as well as to the interactions between the two superimposed arrays. We present in this study the simulation and measurements performances of an optimized C band array embedded in a L band patch antenna, both vertically and horizontally polarized.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012 43 Dual-frequency, Two Shorting Pin-loaded Equilateral Triangular Patch Antennas Sultan Can, K. Yavuz Kapusuz, and Elif Aydın Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Atilim University, Ankara, Turkey Abstract— This study presents resonant frequencies of several antennas, which are dual- frequency antennas. The proposed dual antennas have two shorting pins to form dual frequency. Among several methods, two shorting pins are used to form dual frequency equilateral triangular antennas since there are rare studies on this issue and higher frequency ratios (r) are achiev- able. This study is done to expand the studies in the literature about two shorting pin loaded equilateral triangular patch antennas. The parameters that affect the resonant frequencies of the antenna are also evaluated. The thickness, side length and shorting pin positions are varied and the resonant frequencies are examined according to the change of these parameters. Frequency ratios are determined for each variation and the results are compared. Three antennas with dif- ferent side length are determined as seen in Table 1. The antennas A, B and C have side length of 45, 60, and 100, respectively. FR4 is used as a substrate, which has a permittivity value of 4.4 in all three antennas. The proposed antenna in [11] with side length 45 mm has an upper frequency of 2150 MHz and lower frequency of 1470 MHz. For the antennas proposed in [11] the upper and lower frequencies are compared and the average error for lower frequency is 8.01% and the average error for upper frequency is 5%. The proposed antenna in this study with a side length 100 mm has an upper frequency 2106.7 MHz and a lower frequency of 493.3 MHz. The frequency ratio of upper and lower resonant frequencies; obtained from the previous studies in literature was in between 1.51 and 1.61. As mentioned before frequency ratio is a critical parameter for various applications. So achieving higher frequency ratio is an advantage in dual- frequency antenna designs. On this purpose, an antenna with side length 100 mm is achieved with a frequency ratio 4.27, which is a satisfactory result for achieving high frequency ratios. The effects of the shorting pin position and thickness are also examined and the results are presented. The thickness is varied in between 1 mm to 10 mm and the variation of the frequency ratio according to the thickness is examined. With the lower thickness, the higher frequency ratios are obtained for every distance value. The frequency ratio for a thickness of 1 mm is in between 1.35 and 1.76 while it is in between 1.72 and 2.03 for a thickness value of 10 mm. The position difference is another parameter that affects the frequency ratio. The increment in the distance d causes an increment in the frequency ratio. Frequency ratio of an antenna with a side length 100 mm is examined for different thickness and distance (d) values. The frequency ratio is 3.9 when the thickness is 1 mm and 4.45 for a thickness value 10 mm. The frequency ratio is reached to 5.78 for a thickness 10 mm at a distance value d = 6.86 while this ratio was 4.45 at a distance d = 5.5. The maximum frequency ratio is 4.59 for 1 mm thickness at a distance d = 6.86. Several antennas are proposed to analyze two shorting pin-loaded equilateral antennas. Resonant frequencies of these antennas are examined for various antenna parameters such as side length, thickness of the substrate and shorting pin positions. It is concluded that the thickness parameter has an effect on both upper and lower frequency of the antenna. The frequency ratio Table 1: Comparison of the simulated results of the proposed antennas with the ones proposed in [11] and frequency ratios. Antenna S(mm) ps1(mm) ps2–ps1(mm) flower [11] (MHz) fupper [11] (MHz) A 45 10 3.7 1470 2150 B 60 13 4 1020 1600 C 100 15 0.3 - - Antenna r [11] flowersim flowersim rproposed A 1.46 1352.2 2042.5 1.51 B 1.56 974.9 1576.9 1.61 C - 493.3 2106.7 4.27

44 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012 r increases if the thickness increases. A relation between the distance d and the frequency ratio is also observed. An increment in distance d causes an increment in frequency ratios. The side length is also varied in between 45 mm to 100 mm. It is observed that if the side length increases the frequency ratio increases. In this study, the importance of higher frequency and the accurate calculation of resonant frequency underlined. The various results of resonant frequencies of dual frequency two shorting pin-loaded antenna are proposed which is a background for computation of resonant frequencies in an accurate way by using curve fitting. Also higher frequency ratio values are obtained with the proposed antennas, which varies in between 3.99 and 5.78 for different thickness and for different pin position. Validation of side length effect is also done by this study. REFERENCES 1. Aydın, E. and S. Can, “Modified resonant frequency computation for tunable equilateral tri- angular microstrip patch,” IEICE Electronics Express, Vol. 7, No. 7, 500–505, 2010. 2. Can, S., “Computation of resonant frequency of dual band triangular patch antenna,” Master’s Thesis in Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Atılım University, Turkey, Jul. 2011. 3. Pant, R., P. Kala, R. C. Saraswat, and S. S. Pattnaik, “Analysis of dual frequency equilateral triangular microstrip patch antenna with shorting pin,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 3, No. 2, 63-68, 2008. 4. Wong, K. L. and S. C. Pan, “Compact triangular microstrip antenna,” Electron Lett., Vol. 33, No. 6, 433–434, Mar. 1997. 5. Aydın, E., “Computation of a tunable-slot loaded equilateral triangular microstrip antenna,” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 23, No. 14–15, 2001–2009, 2009. 6. Pan, S. C. and K. L. Wong, “Design of dual-frequency microstrip antennas with a shorting pin loading,” Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Vol. 1, 312–315, 1998. 7. Wong, K. L. and S. C. Pan, “Compact triangular microstrip antenna,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 33, No. 6, 433–434, 1997. 8. Aydın, E. and S. Can, “Operating frequency calculation of a shorting pin-loaded ETMA,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, accepted. 9. Liu, Q. and W. C. Chew, “Curve-fitting formulas for fast determination of accurate resonant frequency of circular microstrip patches,” IEE Proceedings, Vol. 135, No. 5, Pt. H, Oct. 1988. 10. Wong, K. L., S. T. Fang, and J. H. Lu, “Dual frequency equilateral triangular microstrip antenna with a slit,” Microwave Optical Technol. Lett., Vol. 19, No. 5, 348–350, Dec. 1998. 11. Row, J.-S. and K.-W. Lin, “Low-profile design of dual frequency and dual polarized triangular microstrip antennas,” Electron Lett., Vol. 40, No. 3, 156–157, Feb. 5, 2004.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012 45 Design of Monopole Antenna Using Coupling Characteristic of Spiral Parasitic Patch Kwangyeol Yoon, Seungwoo Lee, and Nam Kim Chungbuk National University, Korea Abstract— This paper presents the monopole antenna with a parasitic patch coupling charac- teristics. The proposed antenna structure consists of a rectangular shape patch, a spiral-shaped parasitic patch, and two L-shaped resonator. At using the rectangular patch only, return loss char- acteristic is shown at 3.50 ∼ 6.17 GHz band. By adding the spiral parasitic patch in the ground plane coupled to the rectangular patch, resonance frequency properties at 2 GHz, 3.5 GHz, 5 GHz, and 6.1 GHz bands are obtained. To achieve the frequency notched characteristics at 4.5 GHz band, two short-circuited quarter wavelength L-shaped resonator connected to the ground plane is inserted beside the feed-line. The proposed antenna dimension is 60 ∗ 40 ∗ 1 mm3 , and is de- signed on the FR-4 substrate having a relative dielectric constant of 4.4. The designed antenna shows that the resonant frequency is 1.75 ∼ 2.55 GHz, 3.18 ∼ 3.88 GHz, and 4.82 ∼ 6.30 GHz below the return loss of −10 dB, also radiation pattern has omni-directional characteristics.

46 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012 Design of the Dual-band Planner Monopole Antenna for Coupled Rectangular-loop Structure and T-shape Rectangular Patch J. D. Jang, S. W. Lee, and N. Kim Chungbuk National University, South Korea Abstract— In this paper, a broadband planar monopole antenna for mobile communication services is designed. The Proposed antenna is composed of a small loop structure with a T-shaped patch and two rectangular patches for the wide bandwidth characteristics. Two rectangular patches are affected to the current flow, therefore the resonant bandwidth is increased. The frequency characteristics are modified and optimized by varying the size of each parameter of the antenna. Whole antenna dimension including the ground plane is 40 × 60 × 1 mm3 . The impedance band- width below a VSWR of 2 is 858 ∼ 988 MHz and 1,496 MHz ∼ 3,955 MHz. The designed antenna is satisfied with the impedance bandwidth in GSM900 (880 ∼ 960 MHz, DCS1900 (1850 ∼ 1990 MHz), US-PCS (1850 ∼ 1990 MHz), WCDMA1900 (1850 ∼ 1930 MHz), ISM band (2400 ∼ 2500 MHz), WLAN (2400 ∼ 2483 MHz), m-WIMAX (2300 ∼ 2400 MHz, 2500 MHz ∼ 2690 MHz), and LTE next-generation (3.5 GHz and 3.8 GHz). Moreover, the radiation patterns are omni-directional shapes, which are appropriated for the mobile handset. Therefore, this antenna can be applicable to the small size multi-band mobile devices.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012 47 Design and Relative Permittivity Determination of an EBG-based Wearable Antenna N. R. Rishani, M. Al-Husseini, A. El-Hajj, and K. Y. Kabalan ECE Department, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon Abstract— A simple technique to determine the permittivity of a textile material is presented in this paper. This is used for wearable antennas, whose substrate is some type of textile and finding its permittivity is usually a challenge. Furthermore, the stacking of several layers, of the same material to get the required thickness, alters the whole structure permittivity. A patch antenna that resonates at 1.575 GHz was designed on a Cordura fabric dielectric material, assuming a permittivity (εr) of 1.9, and copper tape as the conductive material. An Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) structures layer is incorporated between the patch and the ground plane, as in Figure 1(a). The EBG layer minimizes backward radiation when transmitting and keeps the antenna performance steady while operating in the body vicinity. For this εr value of Cordura, the patch dimensions are 66 mm×69 mm and those of the full ground plane are 106 mm×108 mm. The embedded EBG layer has 5 × 5 patches where each is 18.5 mm × 19 mm. A prototype of the designed antenna was fabricated, and its reflection coefficient was measured. Figure 1(b) shows a shift in the resonant frequency from 1.575 GHz to 1.74 GHz, and this implies a lower substrate permittivity. The same design was simulated for several values of εr and the attained results show that the antenna resonates at 1.74 GHz for a permittivity of 1.5, as in Figure 1(b). Considering εr = 1.5, the patch was redesigned and 1.575 GHz resonance was obtained for a patch size of 66 mm × 69 mm. The re-designed antenna was fabricated, and measured. As illustrated in Figure 1(c), high correlation between simulated and measured reflection coefficient plots was obtained. As a result, the permittivity of the used textile material was concluded to be 1.5. (a) (b) (c) Figure 1: (a) 3D configuration of the proposed antenna showing patch, EBG layer and ground plane. (b) Simulated and measured reflection coefficients for several εr values. (c) Re-fabricated prototype with its simulated and measured reflection coefficient.

48 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012 Antenna Array for IEEE 802.11/a/b MIMO Application Dau-Chyrh Chang, Yi-Jhen Li, and Chao-Hsiang Liao Communication Research Center, Oriental Institute of Technology No. 58, Sec. 2, Sichuan Rd., Banqiao Dist., New Taipei City 220, Taiwan, R.O.C. Abstract— In this paper, antenna array for WiFi IEEE 802.11a/b with frequency at 2.4 GHz ∼ 2.5 GHz and 5.2 GHz ∼ 5.8 GHz is implemented. The results from both simulation and mea- surement are compared. Figure 1 the geometry of the antenna array simulated by GEMS. Top patch arrays is dual polarizations with frequency at 5.5 GHz. The bottom patch array is dual polarizations with frequency at 2.4 GHz. The 5.5 GHz array is located on the top of 2.4 GHz array. The hardware implementation for 2.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz is shown in Figure 2. The return loss, power pattern, efficiency for two orthogonal polarizations at 2.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz will be discussed in full paper. Figure 1: The simulation model. Figure 2: Hardware implementation for 2.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012 49 Analysis of a Dual Frequency Circular Patch Antenna Sultan Can, K. Yavuz Kapusuz, and Elif Aydın Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Atılım University, Ankara, Turkey Abstract— This study demonstrates resonant frequencies of several shorting pin loaded circular antennas, which are dual-frequency antennas. Dual-frequency operation is formed by using a shorting pin, which is connected between ground and the radiated part of the antenna. There are various studies, which are used to produce dual-frequency operation, and among those methods, a shorting pin is used to form dual frequency circular patch antennas since there are rare studies on this issue and size reduction is possible by inserting a pin to an antenna. This study is done to expand the studies in the literature about a shorting pin loaded circular patch antennas. The parameters that affect the resonant frequencies of the antenna are also evaluated. The thickness, permittivity and shorting pin positions are varied and the resonant frequencies are examined according to the change of these parameters. Frequency ratios are determined for each variation and the results are compared. Antennas are the crucial element of wireless systems and patch antennas are one of the most important elements in today’s communication systems. Microstrip patch antennas, which are resonant antennas, are popular due to their low weight, low profile and cheap for printed circuit construction [1–7]. Efficient design of an antenna can increase the overall performance of the communication systems. Since the efficient design of a patch antenna is crucial, calculating design parameters such as resonant frequency and input impedance is getting more and more important [1–3]. Dual frequency operations are also popular in wireless communications and there are several methods to form a dual frequency such as slot, slit and shorting pin loading [2]. In designing the dual frequency antenna, an important parameter is to achieve higher frequency ratios with lower sizes. The frequency ratio is determined as the ratio of the upper frequency to the lower frequency in literature [3]. Inserting a shorting pin is mostly preferred because it significantly reduces the size of the antenna [3]. In this study, a dual frequency antenna is presented and a shorting pin is used to form a dual circular patch antenna. Inserting a shorting pin to a circular patch is preferred because the studies in literature show that shorting pin loaded circular antennas have larger frequency ratios when compared to the rectangular ones [4]. Frequency ratio characteristics examined and the ratios are determined for different permittivity, thickness and shorting pin positions. The upper and lower frequencies are examined for different permittivity values. The variation of frequencies with respect to a ratio of shorting pin position to the radius of the circle is demonstrated for a substrate thickness 0.16 cm. A decrease is observed in the lower frequency with an increase in the position ratio. An increment is also observed in the upper frequency with an increment in the ratio of the positions. The frequency ratios (r) are also demonstrated according to the permittivity and shorting pin positions. Maximum frequency ratio is observed with an antenna which has a permittivity value εr = 2.2 at a position ratio dS/d = 0.9. Minimum frequency ratio is observed with an antenna which has a permittivity value εr = 4.4 at a position ratio dS/d = 0.1. All these data prove that the permittivity of the substrate changes the upper and the lower frequencies but the effect of the permittivity value to the frequency ratio is not significant. Besides, the ratio of the radius and the shorting pin position from the centre of the circle (dS/d) increase the frequency ratio. The antennas with different permittivity values which have a radius = 2.186 cm and a substrate thickness h = 0.16 achieve a frequency ratio approximately 3.5 at a ratio 0.9 while it was about 2.2 at a ratio was 0.1. The effect of the thickness to the frequency ratio is also examined for an antenna with a radius 2.186 cm which has a permittivity value of εr = 4.4. Varying the thickness changes the frequency ratio and the lowest thickness value, which is 1 mm, achieved the maximum frequency ratio. The studies in the literature demonstrate a null voltage point according to the ratios of the positions in equilateral patches [3]. The null voltage point is determined at a ratio around 0.33. A null voltage point is observed at a distance ratio around 0.3. Thickness parameter has a negligible effect at that point and the frequency ratio remains around 2.45 for each thickness value. Reducing the size of the antenna is important for the designers. An antenna (C) with a frequency ratio 3.82 is proposed with a side length 2.186 cm and permittivity value εr = 2.08 which has a lower thickness when compared to the one in the literature [6]. However, the antenna C is capable of achieving the same frequency ratio. The antenna proposed in the literature (A) is compared with the antenna (B) and error calculated for both upper and lower frequency. The error obtained

50 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012 Table 1: Comparison with simulated results of the proposed antennas with ones proposed in [6] and frequency ratio. Antenna d (cm) ds (cm) h (cm) εr Flower (MHz) Fupper (MHz) Flower error (%) Fupper error (%) r A [6] 2.186 2.1 0.16 4.4 568 2176 – – 3.83 B 2.186 2.1 0.16 4.4 596.9 2190 5.09 0.64 3.66 C 2.186 2.12 0.03 2.08 834.5 3185.6 – – 3.82 is 5.09% for the lower frequency and 0.64% for the upper frequency. Several antennas are proposed for achieving high frequency ratios for dual frequency operations. The frequency ratios are demonstrated for different radius, thickness and position ratios. It is concluded that increasing the distance ratio of the shorting pin to the radius significantly increases the frequency ratio in shorting pin loaded circular patch antennas. It is also obtained that an antenna with lower size and thickness higher frequency ratios are achievable. It is also seen that thickness parameter has a negligible effect on frequency ratio at a critical point where the ratio dS/d is around 0.3. An antenna is also proposed with smaller size, but achieves the same frequency ratio. REFERENCES 1. Aydın, E. and S. Can, “Modified resonant frequency computation for tunable equilateral tri- angular microstrip patch,” IEICE Electronics Express, Vol. 7, No. 7, 500–505, 2010. 2. Can, S., “Computation of resonant frequency of dual band triangular patch antenna,” Master’s Thesis in Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Atılım University, Turkey, Jul. 2011. 3. Aydın, E. and S. Can, “Operating frequency calculation of a shorting pin-loaded ETMA,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 54, No. 6, 1432–1435, Jun. 2012. 4. Kumar, P. and G. Sing, “Microstrip antennas loaded with shorting post,” Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, 41–45, Jun. 2009. 5. Kumar, P. and G. Sing, “Theoretical computation of input impedance of gap-coupled circular microstrip patch antennas loaded with shorting post,” Journal of Computational Electronics, Vol. 10, No. 1–2, 195–200, Jun. 2011. 6. Tang, C. L., H. T. Chen, and K. L. Wong, “Small circular microstrip antenna with dual frequency operation,” Electronic Letters, Vol. 33, No. 13, 1112–1113, Jun. 1997. 7. Gurel, C¸. S., E. Aydın, and E. Yazgan, “Computation and optimization of resonant frequency and input impedance of a coax-fed circular patch microstrip antenna,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 49, No. 9, 2263–2267, Sep. 2007.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012 51 Design and Simulation of E-shaped Compact Microstrip Antenna for WLAN Applications Mahmoud Abdipour1 , Gholamreza Moradi2 , and Reza Sarraf Shirazi2 1 Azad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran 2 Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran Abstract— In this paper, an E-shaped compact microstrip antenna for high speed Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) applications is presented. We use only a single patch for our proposed antenna. In the simulation result impedance bandwidth (VSWR < 1.3) is obtained. During this design on the top, conductor Substrate manufactured from RT DURIOD 5880 with dielectric constant 2.21 and height of 20 mil on other hand backed manufactured from conductor ground plane. Tiny circuit size, high gain and low return loss are advantages of this study than other similar works.

52 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012 A Compact Ultra Wideband EBG Antenna with Band Notched Characteristics S. Raghavan, Ch. Anandkumar, A. Subbarao, M. Ramaraj, and R. Pandeeswari National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli-620015, India Abstract— Ultra wideband communication systems have received great attraction in wireless world. It is popularly used technology in radar and remote sensing. Ultra wideband technol- ogy provides promising solutions for future communication systems due to excellent immunity to multi path interference, large bandwidth and high speed data rate. A bandwidth from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz is allocated for UWB systems by Federal Communication Commission. UWB antenna is a key component in UWB systems. In this paper, a novel compact Ultra wideband antenna is presented. The antenna is constructed with low cost FR4 substrate with relative permittivity = 4.4 and thickness h = 0.8 mm. The antenna has a size of 30 mm × 34 mm. The antenna has hexagonal tuning stub which is fed by microstrip line. The antenna has band width of 3.1 GHz to 10.7 GHz which covers entire band width specified by Federal Communication Commission. Since WLAN band (5.15–5.85 GHz), occupies a portion of UWB band, there is electromagnetic inter- ference between them. An electromagnetic band gap (EBG) cell is introduced near the feeding part of structure to avoid interference from WLAN band from 5.1 GHz to 5.85 GHz. The effects of width, height of EBG cell on antenna are studied. The antenna has Omni directional radia- tion pattern in operating bandwidth and it has good radiation efficiency. The gain and radiation pattern of antenna have been investigated and found to be stable. The group delay variation of antenna is less than 1 ns in operating bandwidth which represent linear phase response. The antenna can be easily integrated with radio frequency circuit for low cost.

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