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PASSIVE SENSORS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE MONITORING

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Information about PASSIVE SENSORS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE MONITORING

Published on June 8, 2016

Author: AcademiaDeIngenieriaMx

Source: slideshare.net

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2. Understand the behavior of infrastructure systems -Provide feedback into the design process Early detection of damage -Maximize service life and minimize maintenance costs Wide range of technologies are available -lmplementation will depend on quality of information generated and the cost of insta Ilation, interrogation, and maintenance of monitoring system

3. Each infrastructure system is unique Length vanes from tens of feet to miles Critical components are often not accessible for visual after completion of construction Initiation of damage is usually difficult to detect,, but early correction of damage could greatly reduce long-term maintenance costs Budgets for infrastructure management are extremely limited

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5. 4, CISN Rapid Instrumental lntensity Map Epicenter 11 km NE of San Simeon, CA Mc.n De: 22 203 11:15 56 At.1 PT M N 3,1 71 W121. 10 Depfli 7Fkm ID 4:1 4755 36.5 '4 36 Paso Robles . • ft_' , 35.5* ' /11 • d San Lu - s Obtspp km L— — — 35 * 0 10 2030 _________ t •t ti -121 -120 Prccesed: ThuApr8,*D4ce:32:16AMPDT, Ibtteft We.i1'. 1 LIit Iror V?fy trong v9re Volent Exlrem rne non Ver khi Lichi 1, xrje ttxJer3Ie .€-r) He.' PEAKA9) «.17 .17-1.4 1.4-3.0J3.9--02 92-16 16-34 34-85 85.124 124 PAKVELcm) .0 1 01-1 1 : 11-3.4 i 3 4-8 1 81-18 10-31 31-00 C.D-liC >110 INSTRUMENTAL 1 III Ip(1-p1r1-Y

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10. The cost of continuous monitoring cannot be justified for most infrastructure systems. -Triggering mechanisms can be difficult to determine. --Significant amount of data analysis is required. - Fluctuations due to daily and seasonal thermal cycles can dominate response. Focus on passive sensors that are interrogated ¡ ntermittently. - Initial cost must be very Iow. -Sensors must be durable and not require maintenance. -Sensors must not rely on batteries for power. - Interrogation of sensors must be fast. - Data must be easily interpreted.

11. _,. L - • •Y Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) Tágs Used to control shoplifting in retail stores throughout the world Cost: <$010 Wireless, unpowered, binary output

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13. rM"Each year, more than $1 billion is spent repairing concrete

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15. Threshold Corrosion Sensor Risk is Iow Penetration of Contaminants Risk is high

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17. PASSIVE SENSOR PLATFORM Jk -- -. __ •:'-- T - .4 .. -, . • - - • P4 ) - 1IQ. Ir I iii ' 4it ii&J 47.4 : :..T;Ñw .-rr- ___•.__...•,......... . - -. -. -.-.-.-.--.--...--.-___.I____-- - -- - .. ..--• ,-.- No batteries .a-l• --- . R.I i'i o w r e- El No on-board processing -i T --r*•

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19. lmpedance External Ana lyzer reader Steel reinforcement sensors

20. Jk - [4

21. Resonant Ci rcuit Sacrificial Element

22. • 1 Rader Coil Í lí • Gain/Phase Analyzer -•& T 1 Concrete SIab

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24. Elm a) a) b.O a) a) a) -c RN 75 u u ic 1• ( Resonant Circuit 70 65 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 Frequency, MHz

25. II a) a)Lma to a.' ci 80 75 a) - c a) (IP, co -c 70 65 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 Frequency, MHz

26. rn z o z nl z wi -< r) nl (u

27. 3.30 3.25u. c G) a- a) u- 1 c 3.20 3.15 1 2 9 1 1 1 9 9 1 1 • • u a u u a u 0 20 40 60 ¡ ru': 120 Time, Days

28. Mávj [SI.] a) a) a) a)84 u) .= a. 11 wet/dry cycles WK me 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.4 Frequency, MHz

29. 3 wet/dry cyclesa) a) U) CD .= 0 me 1101 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Frequency, MHz

30. ME [.1. to 84 (1) o- 80 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Frequency, MHz

31. 4

32. Used to evaluate long-term reliability of se nso rs. Specimens representative of a bridge deck. -Flexural cracks present in specimens. -Exposed to controlled moisture fluctuations. -Source of chioride ions provided. -Exposed to uncontrolled temperature fluctuations (<0°C to>40°C). -Exposed to uncontrolled humidity fluctuations. -Uncoated reinforcement.

33. -- - • Region of constant negative moment. • Cracks induced in top surface before start of exposure tests.

34. Water dripped onto top surface of slab in constant moment region during wet periods.

35. Splash zone Slabs were exposed to alternating wet and dry cycles for 19 months. -Slabs Si and S2 were exposed to salt water -Slabs Ti and T2 were exposed to tap water Each slab canta ined eight sensors, whích were interrogated at the end of each wet or dry penad.

36. íi Percent of Frequency Shift (%) 0 00 NJ o o o o o I Qk) 5 Da• oo - II 1I oo ~a Mm LA DO

37. Percent of Frequency Shift (%) o 00 o o o o o i o o o o -I 3 (D j Do (I'I ~a (Ji o o

38. Percent of Frequency Shift (%) O CO o o o o o o p Ni o o —I 3 (D wCD DO ]wmbw- Ln o o

39. Percent of Frequency Shift (%) O 00 NJ O O O O O O O O -710 --1 3 (Dw CD DO (1, immm O O m~ KA

40. ___ L -' Fr - - - -.

41. - 4 1 '9 9-.' 1 ¡ r. .1 1 •k r • :. t .±_• ! Á4

42. No Corrosion Corrosion No Corrosion 23 1 Corrosion 0 9 One sensor indicated a false negative reading. Time to detection of corrosion varied considera bly.

43. CI III 1 - ;- - -----'- n P a (.í)(D ( ul 1 _.) 4 . ' a - '• •' • ;. . . . -_ .. ••, . 41 _éÇ...

44. Four series of long-term exposure tests were conducted using various configurations of passive sensors. -a-No false positive readings were ever recorded. If a sensor indicated the presence of corrosion, corrosion of the adjacent reinforcement was always observed. -False negative readings were observed in each series of tests. The corroding element was very sensitive to the location of cracks in the concrete.

45. Uniform Corrosion 1' Simulated Crack 7 -- - oír ..• •' •. • - 4 • l•_.* ...,-..' ..,.. • 1.; -

46. NJ CD -I 3 (D a M. 00 Q o w o o Percentageof Frequency shift (%) u u u u u u u u u u u 0 TI•o -L-- ' 1- (D 0 (-) 0.)

47. o 4;) Diffusion Iayer Prote mortar F Sacrificial element etically sea led )nantcircuit

48. Bare Washer Diffusion Layer Edge of Sensor r~I=.

49. Y

50. >u a) 25 o- O) u- 50 (D o(1) a) 75 r 100 0 150 300 450 600 750 Time (Days)

51. Shift in Resonant o (Ji o (Ji O Frequency (%) NJ (Ji o u, o o (D V) U, 0 u, o

52. Additon of a diffusion ¡ayer eliminates the sensitivity of the sensor response to crack location. -Variability of sensor readings is dramatically red uced. -Likelihood of false negative readings is also reduced.

53. Lr 1 RrI Reader (r) Llillil ['fr] Lw Washer (w) r --------1 Ls ...LcsI LL Rs J Resona nt sensor (s) [lft[

54. a) b.O a) a 75 a)60 to a) ( -c45 - . . . ....... ......... ------- —0.18 Ohm --0.250hm u : 0.5Ohm 1.00hm Jj 2.5 Ohm / —l000hm /-1,000,000 Ohm ------ -------- frc (C0T0C1) 30 1 •a a • • U U U U U U U 1 U NENE 12 i U U U U U 1 U U U U U U U ¡ 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 Frequency (MHz)

55. Resonant circuit External rea circuit il Rw 0- 17oh ¿ Voltage_Source Cr 1 OO.3pF • u Rr O.O8ohrn I»(S lohm __1__ Cs 82OpF Sacrificial MaxwelV FEM washer ctrcuit (inductance model)

56. ~10- r

57. r) o c - J m o -n z - nl rn nl rn z -1 o o nl

58. (Dwashpr) vjDr .. = 0.54 (D%A, c h r), d/Dy... = 1.05 1.15 Washerwidth = 0.5 in. a 1.10 a 4- w 4- u 1.05 u 1.00 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 (Dwasher) avg / Drc

59. Interrogated through concrete Close proximity to reinforcement does not interfere with signal Sensor readings are not sensitive to temperature or moisture content of concrete Corrosion of sacrificial element was irreversible Threshold leveis of corrosion can be detected before structural damage occurs Cost to fabricate sensor is modest (< $5.00)

60. Addition of diffusion ¡ayer greatly reduces the probability of false negative readings and reduces the sensitivity to the relative location of cracks in the concrete. Coupled finite element modeis can be used to optimize the size and configuration of the sensors.

61. The research discussed in this presentation was conducted by Al¡Abu Yosef during his PhD at the Ferguson Structural Engineering Laboratory. Dean Neikirk and Praveen Pasupathy in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering were key members of the research team. Funding was provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology through the Technology Innovation Program. The National Science Foundation funded an earlier phase of the work to develop a passive sensor platform for infrastructure monitoring.

62. n MÉXICO ACADEMIA DE INGENIERIA IW Documentación Requerida para Ingresar como Académico Titular o Académico Correspondiente Fecha: 3 /r Nombre del Candidato: S Lyon Í =›ny1 Comisión de Especialidad: 7PUP Cartas de recomendación de 5 Académicos con derechos vigentes: rLL. 1 -1 tt k k 1 E ¶.c [rjp - o rct Lo i 1 1"l Derechos Vigentes [ma Carta de motivos refiriendo su interés por pertenecer a la Al Currículum Vitae Copia del Título yio grados académicos Evidencias de su actividad profesional Nombre completo y datos de localización (dirección, teléfonos, fax, celular y correo electrónico)

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