passive introduction

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Published on November 4, 2007

Author: bbogage

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  How do you make it? 2) When do you use it? Slide2:  English uses both active and passive sentences. Here are some examples of each: 2a. Shakespeare wrote 'Romeo and Juliet.' 2b. 'Romeo and Juliet' was written by Shakespeare. 1a. Development threatens the rain forests. 1b. The rain forests are threatened by development. Slide3:  More Examples . . . 4a. Sam built that beautiful home. 4b. That beautiful home was built by Sam. 3a. The secretary answers the telephone. 3b. The telephone is answered by the secretary. Slide4:  How do you form this grammar? Ex. Change the following sentence to the passive: Dogs chase cats. Slide5:  This week, we will start with basic passive sentences: =past and present passives Look at these examples and decide what tense the active sentences are. John fixed the car. The wind started the fire. The dean makes the decisions. The engineers built the bridge. People destroy rain forests. *The tense of each active sentence indicates what tense to use for the verb BE in the passive form. Slide6:  So now let’s look at the passive forms: Remember: Switch subject and object Use BE + past participle of the main verb Use 'by' 1. John fixed the car. Passive = The car was fixed by John. The wind started the fire. Passive = The fire was started by the wind. 3. The dean makes the decisions. Passive = The decisions are made by the dean. The engineers built the bridge. Passive = The bridge was built by the engineers. People destroy rain forests. Passive = The rain forests are destroyed by people. Slide7:  Now let’s try some additional examples: Present passives: The mailman delivers the mail. Passive= The mail is delivered by the mailman. 2. The custodians clean the classrooms. Passive= The rooms are cleaned by the custodians. Slide8:  And more examples . . . Past passives: The dog knocked over the vase. Passive= The vase was knocked over by the dog. 2. Lisa made the cookies. Passive= The cookies were made by Lisa. Slide9:  When do we use passive grammar? 1) We typically use passive grammar when we want to emphasize or focus on the object of the sentence. Ex. Lisa was hit by another driver. *Here, our focus is on Lisa, as a victim or recipient of the action, getting hit 2) We also use the passive when it’s not so important OR not known WHO did the action. Ex. The house was built in 1950. *Here, we don’t know who built the house. Ex. The criminals were arrested. (by the police) *Here, we assume the police did the action of arresting the criminals, so it’s not necessary to write Slide10:  Here are more examples: Thousands of people are killed on California’s freeways each year. We don’t know exactly WHAT kills these people, but we assume it’s things like car accidents, excessive speed, careless driving, etc. The sweaters are made in Taiwan. We don’t know exactly WHO makes them, but we assume it’s a worker. Slide11:  We will practice this grammar in class all week! Do the grammar activity on our website!

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