Particle model of matter a quick summary

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Information about Particle model of matter a quick summary

Published on November 29, 2013

Author: LKOTZE



A framework and summary of the particle model of matter, used as basis in my lessons for grades 9 - 10.

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St ates of matter and the kinetic molecular theory

Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. (Like you!) 3 phases: Most of the matter in our world can be found in Solid Liquid Gas

of solids Properties Solids are in a fixed form that can only change by denting, breaking or bending it. Solids are hard. High density. Can not be compressed. Can not flow, except when it is in small pieces. Has a fixed volume.

of liquids Properties Liquids have no fixed form – it takes the shape of the container. Not hard. High density. Cannot be visibly compressed. Can flow. Has a fixed volume.

of gases Properties Gases have no fixed form – it takes the shape of the container. Not hard. Low density. Can easily be compressed. Can flow. Does not have a fixed volume.

Matter consists of particles. This is proven when you look at DIFFUSION. Diffusion The movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration. Diffusion is the result of constant motion of particles.

Brownian motion Particles make strange jerky, zig-zag motions; as if they vibrate by themselves. However, it is caused by the collisions between particles.

The physical condition of a substance depends on the temperature, which is measured with a thermometer in degrees Celsius. There are two fixed points on a thermometer: The freezing point of water (0 °C) and the boiling point of water (100°C).

Freezing point Melting point Boiling point Temperature Temperature Temperature at which at which a at which solid liquid is liquid turns is turned to liquid. turned to solid. to a gas.

Determining the physical Condition of a subst ance If room temperature is more than the boiling point, it is a gas. If room temperature is less than the melting point, it is a solid. If the melting point is less than room temperature, which is in turn less than the boiling point, it is a liquid.

State Changes Solid → Liquid Melting Solid → Gas Sublimation Liquid → Gas Evaporation Liquid → Solid Solidification Gas → Liquid Condensation Gas → Solid Sublimation Heating Cooling

Particles are not in a Mel ting fixed position, but Melting point: Particles vibrate strong enough to slide over overcome intermolecular forces. each For a solid to melt, E of particles other. must be enough to overcome ● ● kinetic intermolecular forces. Solid On heating, heat energy is absorbed. ●E is converted into Ekinetic – heat ● particles move more violently. Liquid

solidification Liquid When a liquid cools, energy of particles are given off, particles lose Ekinetic, and move slower. Solid Intermolecular forces at the point of solidification increase. The particles do not have enough energy to move around freely. Particles can only vibrate around a fixed position, forming a solid.

Boiling Evaporation Only occurs at boiling point Occurs at a lower temperature than boiling point Occurs throughout the liquid Only occurs on the surface Happens quickly Happens slowly Temperature remains constant during boiling Causes cooling because heat is absorbed out of the environment

G as Heating curve Boiling Liq ui d Melting point Melting So lid Temperature Boiling point Time

Slide 2: Solid – Liquid – Gas – All other diagrams drawn by author. Slide 7:

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