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part-II Chemical (Pesticide) Safety

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Information about part-II Chemical (Pesticide) Safety
Science-Technology

Published on March 11, 2014

Author: muhammadasifmahm

Source: authorstream.com

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Chemical (Pesticide) Safety (Renewed Initiative) (Part-II): Chemical (Pesticide) Safety (Renewed Initiative) (Part-II) Muhammad Asif Mahmood Entomologist Health Department, Punjab, Pakistan entomologistpunjab@gmail.com Ph : 00923007611830 00923063333136 Key Actions Planned in Stockholm conference 1994: Key Actions Planned in Stockholm conference 1994 Establishment of Inter Governmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS)- 1994 National Profiles on Chemical Safety Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPS) Prior Informed Consent Programme (PIC) Inter Governmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS): Inter Governmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) Non Institutional forum Forum for meeting amongst Reps of Govts , International Organization & NGOs Propose, promote & support policies and strategies on Global Chemical Safety IFCS adopted six priority areas identified by UNCED (1992) on implementation of its recommendations Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs): Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Harmful Chemicals that remain in the environment for longer times due to inherent ability to resist against degradation through photolytic , biological and chemical process . So for known POPs belong to two main groups of organic compounds Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Halogenated hydrocarbons (mainly polychlorinated) Properties of POPs: Properties of POPs High lipid solubility compared to low solubility in water Bioaccumulation in fatty tissues Semi volatile Occur in environment in Vapour or adsorbed form Can be transferred to longer distances through water, air, food, animals, birds and humans Found every where in oceans, desserts, arctic and Antarctic regions 12 known POPs (Dirty dozen): 12 known POPs (Dirty dozen) UNEP Governing council meeting Decision No 18/32 recommended assessment of 12 pops 8 pesticides Aldrin , chlordane, DDT , dieldrin , endrin , heptachlor, mirex , tophene 02 Industrial products Hexachlorobenzene (also used as pesticide) Poly chlorinated biphenyl's (PCBs ) used in electric transformers By products : Dioxins and furans are byproducts of chemical manufacturing and combustion process Decisions UNEP GC (9th meeting Decision 18/32 1995): Decisions UNEP GC (9 th meeting Decision 18/32 1995) Consolidation of available information on chemistry & toxicology of substances relevant to impact on health and environment Analysis of transport pathway, origin and deposition of these substances on a global scale Examine sources, benefits, risks and other considerations relevant to production and use of these substances Evaluate availability, cost & effectiveness of alternatives to these substances Assess realistic response strategies, policies & mechanisms for reducing or eliminating emissions, discharges and releases of POPs . Actions against POPs (UNEP Decision 18/32 1995) : Actions against POPs (UNEP Decision 18/32 1995) IPCS & IOMC started compilation of available information on Chemistry, Toxicology, Transport pathways, origin, cost benefits POPs Recommendation of IFCS Adhoc working group about International action on POPs (report 1996) adopted the resolution WHA 50/13 May97. Resolution WHA 50/13 (1997) : Resolution WHA 50/13 (1997) Actions Called Upon Member States Base management of POPs on scientific risk assessments Coordinate all stakeholders for management of POPs Reduce reliance on insecticides for vector control through Development of alternative control methods Adoption of IVM / IPM approach Selective use of DDT in Public Health as per WHO guide Strengthen National Information Mechanism on chemical contaminants in all media concerning source, levels, extent of exposure of population Strengthen Public awareness and training to prevent poisoning, especially by pesticides Continue Actions Called Upon WHO DG:  Continue Actions Called Upon WHO DG Protect human health and environment (especially from POPs) establishing a legally bounding instrument for “ PIC” Procedures & Strengthening health expertise on use of pesticides for vector / pest control Strengthen WHO collaborating centers for research on Integrated Vector Born Disease control (especially Environment management for vector control ) Accelerate efforts to base National decision making on chemical risk assessment and promote research on harmful effects of chemicals Facilitate information exchange, collate and provide reliable modern data basis (particularly in Developing countries) on human exposure and poisoning Continue capacity building of member states for sound management of chemicals & National chemical safety programs Inter Government Negotiation Committee (UNEP decision 19/13 (97) (Steps towards Identification of New POPs): Inter Government Negotiation Committee (UNEP decision 19/13 (97) (Steps towards Identification of New POPs) 1 st INC meeting (1998 at Montrial ) Reps of >100 member states Established Criteria Expert Group (CEG) to:- Negotiate “Legally binding instrument’ & international action on 12 POPs Formulate TORs for a working group to develop selection criteria for additional POPs The UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) developing stepwise procedure for identification of new POPs. INC working group desired information from member states on persistence, Bio accumulation, Transport, risk/hazard evaluation, Socioeconomic and climatic factors of future candidate POPs. Search Alternatives to POPs: Search Alternatives to POPs Threat of Adoption of Alternatives: May be m ore Costly & hazardous (need high level expertise) So Technical, Economical & Social factors need special attention prior to selection of alternatives Necessary Information for decision Required Quantity, purpose of use, availability & constraints in the adoption of alternatives Regional Position on POPs: Regional Position on POPs High significance Agreed to phase-out pops in steps Many socioeconomic factors Use of DDT still continued (for IRS only) Excellent safety record on humans (>40 year use for IRS in malaria control) What is needed To replace DDT Invest in development of new vector control methods which are Environmentally safe, sustainable and cost effective keeping chemical control at last option e.g. use of cultural, biological & other chemical control methods within IVM methodology WHO and Regional Position on POPs: WHO and Regional Position on POPs INC-1 DISCUSSED DDT AS A POP , WHO EMPHASISED THAT PHASING OUT OF DDT SHOULD NOT BE DONE IN A WAY THAT WILL LEAD TO FURTHER DETERIORATION OF ALREADY SERIOUS MALARIA SITUATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

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