Published on January 27, 2016
1. Slide 1 CONFIDENTIAL MAPPING METHODOLOGY
2. Slide 2 CONFIDENTIAL Introduction/context Not yet any national mapping standards Provincial/municipal maps: Have variable coverage Are often outdated Are provided in inconsistent formats Ambitious project – mapping for every single river, plus pluvial flooding Considering data availability, what could we achieve? Downtown Calgary floods, June 21st, 2013 (Flickr user Wilson Hui - Attribution License 2.0)
3. Slide 3 CONFIDENTIAL Mapping approach Traditional engineering approaches to flood mapping, but with a hi-tech twist! Extensive validation and correction at all stages Generate river network and catchment boundaries GIS analysis of elevation data Correction of any errors Hydrological modelling Generate river flow estimates and rainfall totals Different methods to reflect different river regimes Hydraulic modelling Largest dedicated flood modelling grid in the world Different methods to suit different elevation data
4. Slide 4 CONFIDENTIAL Elevation data Digital Surface Model (DSM) represents the earth’s surface as detected by radar includes features such as tree canopies and tall buildings Digital Terrain Model (DTM) representation of the true ‘bare-earth’ ground level 34% of national population mapped on bare-earth terrain data DTM DSM
5. Slide 5 CONFIDENTIAL Hydrology introduction Purpose: methods to calculate river flows and rainfall totals for any ungauged location in the country No published Canada-wide methods for estimating these However, high quality data plentiful
6. Slide 6 CONFIDENTIAL Hydrology overview Input data Water Survey of Canada - HYDAT database of 1,664 river gauge records Environment Canada – IDF curves and snow depth records at 565 gauges Ecological Framework of Canada – ecozones to calculate losses e.g. from urban drainage Represents local characteristics Significant influence of lakes Snow-melt Frozen impermeable ground Environment Canada rain gauges 20yr rainfall surface – 1 hr duration Rainfall surface - 20yr - 1hr duration High : 55 mm Low : 5 mm 55mm 5mm
7. Slide 7 CONFIDENTIAL Design rainfall estimation Rainfall hyetographs for every catchment across Canada Intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) statistics at 565 gauges used to calculate rain depth per return period Three storm durations for each return period, to capture critical storm duration in different topographies Adjusted to account for snowmelt & frozen ground Interpolated to create continuous rainfall surfaces Hyetograph generation using US Soil Conservation Service method Percentage runoff varies with land use
8. Slide 8 CONFIDENTIAL Snowmelt & frozen ground Rain on snow can lead to significant flooding Losses reduced by: Priming of depressions (snow-filled) Frozen ground Lack of vegetation Volume of water from snowmelt on successive days calculated from snow depth gauges Snowmelt amounts combined with rainfall totals to generate winter runoff at each gauge Considered alongside summer rainfall totals – worst case taken forward Stirling Flood, 25th Jan 2010 (Flickr user Robert Taylor. Attribution License 2.0)
9. Slide 9 CONFIDENTIAL Peak flow estimation for main rivers Adapted from Faulkner, D., Warren, S. and Burn, D (2015) – Design floods for all of Canada. Accepted by Canadian Journal of Water Resources Input data (HYDAT flow data, lakes, catchment boundaries) Data checking & development of flood peak dataset – daily mean and instantaneous AMAX flowsCalculation of an index of lake attenuation Estimation of the index flood (QMED) at suitable gauging stations Development of regression model to estimate QMED from effective catchment area and FARL Spatial interpolation of residuals from regression model using kriging, to derive local adjustment factors for QMED Regionalization: spatial interpolation of L-moment ratios using kriging Calculation of QMED for ungauged catchments Calculation of return period design flows at ungauged locations using growth ratios and QMED Flood Frequency Analysis - fitting of growth curves (GEV distribution) at gauged locations
10. Slide 10 CONFIDENTIAL Hydrology summary We developed methods that enabled us to: Calculate rainfall amounts for all catchments in Canada Calculate river flows for 24,000 locations along the national river network Account for the impacts of snowmelt Represent different land uses and ground conditions These form some of the inputs into our hydraulic models… Whitemud Park, Edmonton, 23rd June 2013. Flickr user Kurt Bauschardt. Attribution License 2.0
11. Slide 11 CONFIDENTIAL Hydraulic modelling RFlow® Extremely fast Credible outputs Used in largely unpopulated areas JFlow® Fast Specifically designed for large-scale hazard mapping Developed since 2002 Benchmarked by UK government River flow estimates Rainfall estimates Elevation data Maps of flood depth and extent
12. Slide 12 CONFIDENTIAL What’s the result? National flood hazard maps for 7 return periods at 30m resolution > 5 million km of river mapped Pluvial flooding for every location Full 2D hydrodynamic simulations for three storm durations, for each return period, on a 30m grid! Calgary: 1/100-year fluvial map Calgary: 1/100-year fluvial & pluvial map
13. Slide 13 CONFIDENTIAL River Flood - Calgary
14. Slide 14 CONFIDENTIAL Application of flood hazard maps Insurance metrics Underwriting/risk scores Pricing tools Eg Annual Damage Ratios Probabilistic models LOCATION B Total insured value of building = C$300,000 MeanADR Buildings = 0.000008 Buildings flood premium = $2.40 LOCATION C Total insured value of building = C$300,000 MeanADR Buildings = 0.00266 Buildings flood premium = $798 LOCATION A Total insured value of building = C$300,000 MeanADR Buildings = 0.00012 Buildings flood premium = $36 Flood warning & forecasting systems
15. Slide 15 CONFIDENTIAL What’s next? Understanding of flood risk across Canada is better than ever – but more to do! Local hydrology & hydraulic studies To do more, we need more: Flood defence data High quality terrain data – LIDAR Investment Accuracy Cost We are here!
16. Slide 16 CONFIDENTIAL Thank you! All photos: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/legalcode Flickr user Ryan McGilchrist. Taken April 21st 2013. Highway 11. Attribution License 2.0
17. Slide 17 CONFIDENTIAL Thank you! Email: MapviewInfo@lexisnexis.com Simon.email@example.com Richard.Toomey@lexisnexis.com Dermot.McNally@lexisnexis.com Helen.Smith@jbarisk.com LCalamai@ibc.ca Website: www.Lexisnexis.com/risk/mapview www.jbarisk.com www.ibc.ca Q&A
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