Published on May 7, 2009
Materials derived from: Nevin, A., Villa, R., & Thousand, J., (2009). A guide to co-teaching with paraeducators: Practical tips for K-12 educators (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Paraeducators as Co-Teachers: A Fantasy or Reality? Dr. Ann Nevin, Visiting Professor Florida International University firstname.lastname@example.org and Jacqueline Thousand, Professor Cal State San Marcos San Marcos, CA email@example.com Page 1
Materials derived from: Nevin, A., Villa, R., & Thousand, J., (2009). A guide to co-teaching with paraeducators: Practical tips for K-12 educators (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. What Does Co-Teaching Look Like? Four Approaches Co-teaching has many faces. In a national survey, teachers experienced in teaching in a diverse classrooms reported that they used four approaches to co- teaching – supportive, parallel, complementary, and team teaching (National Center for Educational Restructuring and Inclusion, 1995). SUPPORTIVE Supportive co-teaching is when one teacher takes the lead instructional role and the other(s) rotates among the students providing support. The co-teacher(s) taking the supportive role watches or listens as students work together, stepping in to provide one- to-one tutorial assistance when necessary while the other co-teacher continues to direct the lesson. Teachers new to co-teaching or who are short of planning time often begin with this approach. PARALLEL Parallel co-teaching is when two or more people work with different groups of students in different sections of the classroom. Co-teachers may rotate among the groups; and, sometimes there may be one group of students that works without a co- teacher for at least part of the time. Teachers new to co-teaching often begin with this approach. Key to parallel co-teaching is that each co-teacher eventually works with every students in the class. COMPLEMENTARY Complementary co-teaching is when co-teachers do something to enhance the instruction provided by the other co-teacher(s). For example one co-teacher might paraphrase the other co-teacher’s statements or model note-taking skills on a transparency. Sometimes, one of the complementary co-teaching partners pre-teaches the small group social skill roles required for successful cooperative group learning and then monitors as students practice the roles during the lesson taught by the other co- teacher. As co-teachers gain in their confidence and acquire knowledge and skills from one another, complementary teaching becomes a preferred approach. TEAM TEACHING Team teaching is when two or more people do what the traditional teacher has always done – plan, teach, assess, and assume responsibility for all of the students in the classroom. Team teachers share leadership and responsibility. Team teachers share lessons in ways that allow students to experience each teacher’s expertise. For example, for a lesson on inventions in science, one co-teacher with interests is history explains the impact on society. The other, whose strengths are with the mechanisms involved, explains how inventions work. In team teaching, co-teachers simultaneously deliver lessons and are comfortable alternately taking the lead and being the supporter. The test of a successful team teaching partnership is that the students view each teacher as equally knowledgeable and credible. Page 2
Materials derived from: Nevin, A., Villa, R., & Thousand, J., (2009). A guide to co-teaching with paraeducators: Practical tips for K-12 educators (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Examples of Parallel Co-Teaching Structures Activity - “In what ways might we (IWWMW) use each one?” SPLIT CLASS Each co-teacher is responsible for a particular group of students, monitoring understanding of a lesson, providing guided instruction, or re-teaching the group, if necessary. STATION TEACHING OR LEARNING CENTERS Each co-teacher is responsible for assembling, guiding, and monitoring one or more different learning centers or stations. CO-TEACHERS ROTATE The co-teachers rotate among the two or more groups of students, with each co- teacher teaching a different component of the lesson. This is similar to station teaching or learning centers, except in this case the teachers rotate from group to group rather than groups of students rotating from station to station. COOPERATIVE GROUP MONITORING Each co-teacher takes responsibility for monitoring and providing feedback and assistance to a given number of cooperative groups of students. EXPERIMENT OR LAB MONITORING Each co-teacher monitors and assists a given number of laboratory groups, providing guided instruction to those groups requiring additional support. LEARNING STYLE FOCUS One co-teacher works with a group of students using primarily visual strategies, another co-teacher works with a group using primarily auditory strategies, and yet another may work with a group using kinesthetic strategies SUPPLEMENTARY INSTRUCTION One co-teacher works with the rest of the class on a concept or assignment, skill, or learning strategy. The other co-teacher a) provides extra guidance on the concept or assignment to students who are self-identified or teacher-identified as needing extra assistance, b) instructs students to apply or generalize the skill to a relevant community environment, c) provides a targeted group of students with guided practice in how to apply the learning strategy to the content being addressed, or d) provides enrichment activities. Page 3
Materials derived from: Nevin, A., Villa, R., & Thousand, J., (2009). A guide to co-teaching with paraeducators: Practical tips for K-12 educators (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Activity: What are Co-Teaching Issues for Discussion and Planning? Time for Planning • • • • Instruction • • • • Student Behavior • • • • Communication • • • • Evaluation • • • Logistics • • • Other? • • • • Other? Page 4
Materials derived from: Nevin, A., Villa, R., & Thousand, J., (2009). A guide to co-teaching with paraeducators: Practical tips for K-12 educators (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Similarities & Differences of Supportive, Parallel, Complementary and Team Co-Teaching Approaches Similarities Supportive Parallel Complementary Team Teaching Differences Differences Differences Differences Supportive Parallel Complementary Team Teaching Cautions Cautions Cautions Cautions Page 5
Materials derived from: Nevin, A., Villa, R., & Thousand, J., (2009). A guide to co-teaching with paraeducators: Practical tips for K-12 educators (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Co-Teaching Issues for Discussion and Planning with Paraeducators Time for Planning • How much time do we need? • Where will we find the time that we need? • How will we use our time together? • What records do we keep to help our planning? • How is a paraeducator included in planning or the results of planning? Instruction • Who plans for what content? • How is the paraeducator included in this planning? • What are the teaching responsibilities of the paraeducator? • Who adapts the curriculum and instructional and assessment procedures for select students? • What are each co-teacher’s strengths in the area of instruction and assessment? • How will the content be presented – which co-teaching approaches will we use? • How will we arrange to share expertise? • How will the paraeducator get instruction on how to deliver instruction for the lesson? • Do we rotate responsibilities? • How will we assess the effectiveness of our instruction? Student Behavior • What four to five classroom expectations or rules can we agree up? • What role does the paraeducator have in disciplinary procedures? • Who carries out the disciplinary procedures? • How will we be consistent in dealing with behavior? • How will we proactively addressing behavior? Communication • What types and frequency of communication do we each have with parents? • How will we explain this collaborative teaching arrangement to the parents? • Who will communicate with parents? Will there be shared responsibility for communication with parents of students with identified special education and other specialized needs, or will particular members of co-teaching team have this responsibility? • What types and frequency of communication do we each have with students? • Who will communicate with students? • How will we ensure regular communication with each other? • Who communicates with administrators? Evaluation • How will we monitor students' progress? • How will we assess student performance? • What role does the paraeducator play in monitoring and assessing student progress? Logistics • How will we explain our co-teaching arrangement to the students and convey that we are equals in the classroom? • How will we refer to each other in front of the students? • How is space shared by co-teachers? • How will the room be arranged? • Who completes the paperwork for students identified as eligible for special education? • How is the decision made to expand or contract team membership? How is decision-making shared with the paraeducator? Page 6
Materials derived from: Nevin, A., Villa, R., & Thousand, J., (2009). A guide to co-teaching with paraeducators: Practical tips for K-12 educators (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. The SODAS IF Problem-Solving Template SITUATION OPTIONS 1. 2. 3. DISADVANTAGES a. a. a. b. b. b. c. c. c. d. d. d. ADVANTAGES a. a. a. b. b. b. c. c. c. d. d. d. SOLUTION IF you agree to a solution, MAKE A PLAN. (Who will do what, when? How you know if the plan is working?) Page 7
Materials derived from: Nevin, A., Villa, R., & Thousand, J., (2009). A guide to co-teaching with paraeducators: Practical tips for K-12 educators (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Teacher Actions During Co-Teaching If one of you is doing this…. The other can be doing this… Lecturing Modeling note taking on the board/overhead Giving instructions orally Writing down instructions on board Checking for understanding with large Checking for understanding with small heterogeneous group of students heterogeneous group of students Circulating, providing one-on-one Providing direct instruction to whole class support as needed Prepping half of the class for one side of Prepping the other half of the class for the a debate opposing side of the debate Facilitating a silent activity Circulating, checking for comprehension Providing large group instruction Circulating, using proximity control for behavior management Running last minute copies or errands Reviewing homework Re-teaching or pre-teaching with a small Monitoring large group as they work on group practice materials Facilitating sustained silent reading Reading aloud quietly with a small group; previewing upcoming information Reading a test aloud to a group of Proctoring a test silently with a group of students students Creating basic lesson plans for Providing suggestions for modifications, standards, objectives, and content accommodations, and activities for diverse curriculum learners Facilitating stations or groups Also facilitating stations or groups Explaining new concept Conducting role play or modeling concept Considering modification needs Considering enrichment opportunities If one of you is doing this…. The other can be doing this… Page 8
Materials derived from: Nevin, A., Villa, R., & Thousand, J., (2009). A guide to co-teaching with paraeducators: Practical tips for K-12 educators (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Strategies for Expanding Time for Planning BORROWED TIME 1. Rearrange the school day so there is a 50- to 60-minute block of time before or after school for co-teachers to plan. 2. Lengthen the school day for students by 15 to 30 minutes on four days, allowing for early student dismissal on the fifth, thus gaining a long (i.e., 1- to 2-hour) time block for co-teachers to meet. COMMON TIME 3. Ask co-teachers to identify when during the day and week they prefer to plan and redesign the master schedule to accommodate this with a block for common preparation time. TIERED TIME 4. Layer preparation time with existing functions such as lunch and recess times. RESCHEDULED TIME 5. Use staff development days for co-teachers to do more long-range planning. 6. Use faculty meeting time to problem solve common co-teaching issues of either immediate or long-range importance. 7. Build into the school schedule at least one co-teacher planning day per marking period or month. 8. Build in time for more intensive co-teacher planning sessions by lengthening the school year for teachers, but not for students; or shortening the school year for students, but not teachers. RELEASED TIME 9. Go to year-round schooling with 3-week breaks every quarter; devote 4 or 5 of the 3- week inter-session days to co-teacher planning as professional development days. FREED-UP TIME 10. Institute a community service component to the curriculum; when students are in the community (e.g., Thursday afternoon), co-teachers meet to plan. 11. Schedule quot;specialsquot; (e.g., art, music, physical education), clubs, and tutorials during the same time blocks (e.g. first and second period), so co-teachers have at least that extra time block to plan. 12. Engage parents and community members in conducting half-day or full-day exploratory, craft, hobby (e.g., gourmet cooking, puppetry, photography), theater, or other experiential programs to free up time for co-teachers to plan. 13. Partner with universities and have faculty teach in the school to provide demonstrations; give students campus experiences to free up co-teachers to plan. PURCHASED TIME 14. Hire permanent substitutes to free up co-teachers to plan during the day . 15. Compensate co-teachers for spending vacation or holiday time planning with pay or compensatory time during non-instructional school-year days. FOUND TIME 16. Strategically use serendipitous times that occasionally occur (e.g., snow day, student assembly) to plan. NEW TIME 17. In what ways might the school administration provide co-teachers with incentives that would motivate the use of their own time to plan? Page 9
Materials derived from: Nevin, A., Villa, R., & Thousand, J., (2009). A guide to co-teaching with paraeducators: Practical tips for K-12 educators (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Co- Teaching Daily Lesson Plan Date: Co-Teachers: ____________ ____________ ____________ _____________ (Names) Content Area(s): ______________________ Content Standards Addressed: ____________________________ Lesson Objectives:___________________________________________________________ Circle the Co-Teaching Model(s) Used: Supportive Parallel Complementary Team Teaching What is the room arrangement? Will other spaces outside of the classroom be used? (Draw a picture of the room arrangement.) What materials do the co-teachers need? How is student learning assessed by co-teachers? What specific supports, aids, or services do select students need? What does each co-teacher do before, during, and after the lesson? Co-Teacher Name: What are the specific tasks that I do BEFORE the lesson? What are the specific tasks that I do DURING the lesson? What are the specific tasks that I do AFTER the lesson? Where, when, and how do co-teachers debrief and evaluate the outcomes of the lesson? Page 10
SIGNAL ON Ann Nevin & Jacque Thousand Paraeducators as Co‐Teachers – Fantasy or Reality? Step on to the Yellow Brick Road How have paraeducators’ GOALS – Getting on the roles changed? Yellow Brick Road 1950/60s – Clerical roles 1950/60s – *Four co-teaching approaches 1970s – Instructional roles 1970s – *Detours and issues on the way 1975, Education for All Handicapped Children Act *Staying on the yellow brick road – professional 1990 – Increased classroom roles 1990 – development, problem-solving, lesson planning 1997 IDEA Amendments: Access to general *Ruby slippers – Advice from and for education curriculum for all, call for collaboration paraeducators in co-teaching classrooms 21st Century –Inclusive classrooms & specialized Century – settings (ELL, special education) NCLB & IDEIA 2004 ‐ Standards for employment, NCLB & IDEIA 2004 ‐ Source: A Guide to Co-Teaching with Paraeducators district professional development (Nevin, Villa, & Thousand 2009)
When you hear the term “co‐teaching,” what comes to mind? co‐ teaching,” Co‐Teaching is… Co‐ Teaching is… (according to Nevin, Villa,& Thousand, 2009) two or more people sharing responsibility for teaching two or more people sharing responsibility for teaching some or all of the students assigned to a classroom. a fun way for students to learn from two or more people a fun way for students to learn from two or more people o What is your definition of co‐teaching? What is your definition of co‐ who have different ways of thinking or teaching. who have different ways of thinking or teaching. a creative way to connect with and support others to help a creative way to connect with and support others to help all children learn. all children learn. o What can effective co‐teaching look like? What can effective co‐ a way to make schools more effective. effective. Partner Share What is common to all 4 co‐teaching approaches? What is unique to each approach? What cautions are associated with each approach? Where do you see YOURSELF? See Page 5 Page 5
Co‐Teaching: Become an Expert! All Become the “Experts” Four quadrants Supportive • Partner read assigned approach on page 2 Parallel • Complementary • Be prepared to share out key features of your co‐ Be prepared to share out key features of your co‐ teaching approach and your good examples Team Teaching • Time = 2 minutes Co‐Teaching Approach Co‐Teaching (Graphic Organizer) Approaches *Supportive Co-Teaching? *Supportive Co-Teaching One lead, other(s) support -May provide individual support to Share Out. students/groups - May chart concepts - May pass out/collect information
Cautions? *Parallel Co-Teaching? DVD 4:00‐4:41 DVD 4:00‐ Hovercraft/velcro “aide” Hovercraft/ aide” Supportive person only Discipline police Expert group? Students see supportive co‐ Students see supportive co‐ teacher not as “real” teacher teacher not as “ real” Cautions? Many Faces of Parallel Co‐Teaching Many Faces of Parallel Co‐ Partner Read Page 3 1. Split class 2. Station teaching & learning center (students rotate) 3. Co‐teachers rotate 3. Co‐ 4. Cooperative group monitoring 5. Lab or experiment monitoring 6. Learning style (ELL) focus 7. Supplementary instruction (learning strategy, enrichment, guided practice) Examples of how you’ve used? Examples of how you’ What’s appealing? Select 1 or 2 to try! What’
Co‐Teaching Cautions? Approaches *Complementary Co-Teaching? Homogeneous grouping ‐ “bluebirds” vs. Homogeneous grouping ‐ bluebirds” “crow” stigmatization crow” Examples: One delivers content, Avoid paraeducator only working with select Avoid paraeducator one clarifies, expands, students complements, restates May demonstrate graphic organizer, note taking, study guide Parallel co‐teaching is NOT leaving the Parallel co‐ Share Out. room; that’s segregated pull‐out instruction room; that’ s segregated pull‐ May color code, simplify (No monitoring or check‐in possible) (No monitoring or check‐ information Cautions? DVD Clip Which form of co‐teaching Which form of co‐ Not monitor as closely as both “on stage” Not monitor as closely as both “ on stage” do you detect? Step on one another’s “toes” Step on one another’ s “ toes” @ 2 minutes, 5 seconds To 2 minutes, 26 seconds
Co‐Teaching Approaches *Team Teaching Experts Share Out. Team Teaching- What @ Equitable distribution of duties @ Move in and out of all 4 distinguishes it from the other approaches based upon student needs 3 approaches? @ Can/should paraeducators team teach? (page 62) Checking for Understanding Getting around detours Different Paraeducator Roles to making co‐teaching a reality vs. fantasy Page 8
Issues to discuss page 4 What are the barriers? *Time for Planning Task instructions: Identify at least one *Instruction question YOU must discuss with your co- *Student Behavior teaching partner for each of these 6 *Communication areas. Be prepared to share *Evaluation out with the group. *Logistics Time: 3 minutes Team Teaching DEMONSTRATION Sample questions to ask Collaborative *Time for Planning Page 6 S.O.D.A.S. Solution Finding *Instruction (page 7) *Student Behavior *Situation *Communication *Options *Evaluation *Disadvantages *Advantages *Logistics *Solution *ANY OTHER CATEGORIES?
Team Teaching DEMONSTRATION Question: What is the #1 Collaborative resource we have the least S.O.D.A.S. Solution Finding of in education? (page 7) *Situation Dilemma: We don’t have Dilemma: We don’ *Options time to even go to the *Disadvantages bathroom! *Advantages *Solution Sizzling Issue Priority Team Teaching DEMONSTRATION Time to Meet – page 9 Time to Meet – Collaborative S.O.D.A.S. Solution Finding (page 7) *Situation *Options *Disadvantages *Advantages *Solution
TOOLS FOR YOUR CO‐TEACHING TOOLBOX TOOLS FOR YOUR CO‐ “Melting” the Barriers Melting” SODAS TOOLS FOR YOUR CO‐TEACHING TOOLBOX TOOLS FOR YOUR CO‐ Planning time ideas Professional Development – Andrea @ 4:40, Ch. 6 Carlos Castenada
Blank Form Page 10 Trying on different roles See Page 8 Lesson Planning: A Template If one is doing this…The other can be doing… ParaeducatorN ational Survey Why is it worth the effort? Listen to Andrea Your turn!
No one ever said it was going to be easy! What does it take? @ 52 1:06 Thank You! Ann Nevin firstname.lastname@example.org Jacque Thousand email@example.com Gracias! Vielen Dank’! Mille Grazie! Merci!
Paraeducators as Co-Teachers: A Fantasy or Reality? Presenter/s. Ann Nevin
paraeducators-as-coteachers-a-fantasy-or-reality by National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals via ... Paraeducators as Co-Teachers: A Fantasy or Reality?
the one with teacher assistant stuff. ... paraeducators-as-coteachers-a-fantasy-or-reality by National ... Paraeducators as Co-Teachers: A Fantasy or Reality?
Strategies for ParaEducators in ... Administrators can try to help get all the paraeducators on the ... and even fantasy that bridge social gaps ...
New Metaphors for Teacher/Paraeducator Relationships ... is the reality that paraeducators “receive ... with co-teachers, ...
Para-Teacher Partnerships. ... When NEA Today asked three experienced paraeducators to comment on what makes teacher-para relationships click, ...