Published on February 23, 2014
Paradigm Shifts in Extension CED 240-Extension Science Anna Merlinna T. Fontanilla August 3, 2012
What to learn from the report What is a paradigm? How do paradigm shifts happen? Key features of paradigm shifts in agricultural extension Factors shaping extension paradigms New perspectives in R&D
What is a paradigm? The generally accepted perspective of a particular discipline at a given time (English WordNet Mobile Dictionary)
What is a paradigm? Guba • • • and Lincoln (1998) Sets of basic beliefs that deals with ultimates or first principles. Represents a worldview that defines for its holder the nature of the “world”, the individual’s place in it and the range of possible relationships to that world and its parts Not open to proof in any conventional sense
What is a paradigm? “…past scientific achievements that must be sufficiently unprecedented to attract an enduring group of adherents away from competing modes of scientific activity and sufficiently open-ended to leave all sorts of problems for the redefined group of practitioners (and their students) to resolve” (Kuhn, 1972)
What is a paradigm? Paradigms help scientific communities bound their discipline in that they help the scientist to create avenues of inquiry, formulate questions, select methods with which to examine questions, define areas of relevance and establish or create meaning.
What is a paradigm? A paradigm (though it resists change) plays an essential role in allowing a scientist to recognize something as anomalous, as contrary to expectation, and this is an important precondition for discovery.
What is a paradigm? Any given paradigm represents simply the most informed and sophisticated view that its proponents have been able to devise (Guba and Lincoln, 1998)
What is a paradigm? In scientific research, a paradigm is simply a belief system that guides the way we do things, or more formally, establishes a set of practices. Disciplines tend to be governed by particular paradigms, such as: o o o o positivism post positivism critical theory constructivism
What is a paradigm? Paradigms their: o o o can be characterised through ontology (What is reality?) epistemology (How do you know something?) methodology (How do you go about finding out?).
How is a paradigm created? Inquiry Description and interpretation Pre-paradigmatic schools appear A paradigm emerges
What are paradigm shifts? Paradigm shift (or revolutionary science) is the term used by Kuhn in his book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1972) to describe a change in basic assumptions, or paradigms within the ruling theory of science.
What are paradigm shifts? A change from one way of thinking to another. A radical change in underlying beliefs.
How do paradigm shifts happen? In science, there are two ways on how a paradigm change: Discovery Invention
How do paradigm shifts happen? Discovery Awareness of anomaly Adjusting the paradigm Paradigm shift
How do paradigm shifts happen? Invention Awareness of anomaly Loosening of theoretical stereotypes Crisis Persistent failure to solve the “puzzle” Awareness of crisis End of crisis (Paradigm shift)
How do paradigm shifts happen? The transition from a paradigm to a new one is a reconstruction of the field from new fundamentals; the reconstruction changes some of the field’s foundational theoretical generalizations, methods and applications and rules.
How do paradigm shifts happen?
Four paradigms of agricultural extension Technology transfer Advisory work Human resource development Facilitation for empowerment
Factors shaping extension paradigms National goals in relation to extension functions (Swanson, 2010) a. b. c. d. Achieving national food security through technology transfer; Increasing farm income through a more market-driven extension strategy; Empowering farmers by getting them organized into groups (social capital) based on common interests; and Promoting sustainable natural resource management practices
Factors shaping extension paradigms Government’s role in agricultural and rural extension reform (Rivera, 2001) Government's concern: • • • • • production, impact of agricultural practices on the environment, regulations governing quality standards, food safety, and in general, the well-being of the people.
Factors shaping extension paradigms New extension challenges for government: o o o meeting the need to provide food for all, raising rural incomes and reducing poverty and sustainably managing natural resources
Factors shaping extension paradigms Government's o o o critical role: establishing markets for commercial and farmer-to-farmer extension services, providing rural communication infrastructure, and developing human resources.
Factors shaping extension paradigms Emerging challenges in extension (Anandjayasekeram, et. al. 2008) o 5 complex transitions that will ultimately influence productivity and sustainability of the R&D system a. b. c. d. e. Managerial transition Scientific transition Financial transition Political transition New forms of public-private-civil society research-extension partnerships.
Factors shaping extension paradigms Emerging o challenges in extension Recent developments that present challenges to agricultural research and innovation in developing countries a. Confronting new priorities in a rapidly changing world (e.g. stronger demand for competitive and quality-conscious agriculture) and adapting to changes within a more complex innovation systems framework where there are a greater number of actors and linkages to consider;
Factors shaping extension paradigms b. c. Redefining the role of government in agricultural research and service provision and defining the role of the private sector, civil society and end users; Strengthening the demand side of agricultural research and services to ensure that these programs are more responsive and accountable to end users;
Factors shaping extension paradigms d. Developing a clear understanding of the institutional structures needed at the national, regional and subregional levels for agricultural research and service provision and of whether, and how, this understanding would imply changes in the current structures present at national, regional and global levels;
Factors shaping extension paradigms Developing a clear understanding of the institutional structures needed at every level for agricultural education within the emerging food and agricultural innovation systems; Ensuring stakeholder participation and developing local, regional and global partnerships and alliances;
Factors shaping extension paradigms f. Facilitating development of innovative funding instruments that make public institutions more sustainable, reduce donor dependence, and enhance cofinancing by end users and others
Factors shaping extension paradigms h. i. Assisting in developing mechanisms through which internal and external support for food and agricultural innovation systems in developing countries are better coordinated; and Strengthening system linkages and coordination, including linkages between agricultural research policy and wider policies for science and technology.
Factors shaping extension paradigms Globalization Privatization has caused “commodification” of agricultural knowledge (Rivera, 2001) Extension services are viewed as tools to generate income Countries particularly the low-income countries, promote services to provide practical, income-generating agricultural information.
Factors shaping extension paradigms Globalization Competitive challenges to agricultural extension • Rural people go to urban centers • S&T pressure to modernize New Paradigm Technologies tailored to new contexts Adaptation: • Educated workforce • Investment in education • Market-driven reforms • Agribusiness orientation Extension services • Purposespecific • Target-specific • Need-specific
Key features of paradigm shifts in R&D Characteristics Conventional paradigm for Agricultural R&D Current paradigm Driving motive Efficiency: maximize productivity and profit/return to limited resources; competitiveness Productivity, achieving food and nutritional security, poverty alleviation, ecological sustainability and equity Assumed causes of problems Lack of knowledge Farmers are irrational Political-economic roots of problems, neglect of ecology and farmers’ needs (and knowledge), poor understanding of production systems
Key features of paradigm shifts in R&D Characteristics Conventional paradigm for Agricultural R&D Current paradigm Assumption and key features Crop/commodity specific monoculture, uniformity/ homogeneity, reductionism, simplification of systems, efficiency focus on limited variable (land, labor, capital) Agro-ecosystems, polycultures, multiple and high-value crops and resources in system, diversity/heterogeneity, holistic view of productivity and resource management Institutional relations and actors Top down (linear) technology development and transfer model Research to extension (or private sector) to farmers Interactive systemic model, collaboration and networks, horizontal relations (farmer to farmer); agricultural innovation systems, pluralism (research, extension, NGOs, education, civil societies, CBOs, private sectors)
Key features of paradigm shifts in R&D Characteristics Conventional paradigm for Agricultural R&D Current paradigm Main beneficiaries and locus of control of technology Private sector, formal institutions Public interests, communities and farmers (especially the poor), women and children, vulnerable groups Focus of innovation Single technologies (seeds, agro-chemical, bio-technology) Production technologies Agro-ecological principles, institutional innovations, ITK, empowerment and capacity strengthening, relationship among partners and actors
Key features of paradigm shifts in R&D Characteristics Main types of research Conventional paradigm for Agricultural R&D Current paradigm Unidisciplinary, reductionist, scientists over private sector, generate knowledge, mainly doen in laboratories and research stations Multidisciplinary, farmers are researchers and innovators, on-farm, participatory, in communities Common view of Passive farmers audience/partners, irrational seen as conservative and ignorant Active, rational, key partners in innovation proves with valuable knowledge Farmers are active in adopting new research findings to improve productivity
Key features of paradigm shifts in R&D Characteristics Conventional paradigm for Agricultural R&D Current paradigm Skills required Specialization in technology, biological/agronomic sciences, business/finances, biotechnology Biological systems management, social and institutional relations, people/partnering skills, facilitating skills Policy arena Political agencies form rules, close connection with private sectors Public (community) actively involved in setting agenda and decisions Link to environmental/social/ food interests
New perspectives Farming systems perspective Participatory research methods Action research National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems (AKIS)
New perspectives Paradigm Ontology Epistemology Farming systems perspective Farming systems Interaction among components The problem of the farm/farmer cannot be understood or solved by looking at single elements alone. Participatory Non-adoption of research technologies is because methods of deficiencies in the technology and the process that generated it, especially inadequate participation in all stages of the process by those intended to benefit. Participation eliminates weaknesses of the traditional “top-down” approach to R&D. Inputs of the beneficiary and indigenous knowledge are important components of the project.
New perspectives Paradigm Ontology Epistemology Action research People learn best, and more willingly apply what they have learned, when they do it themselves. People themselves have the capacity to solve their own problems and bring about change. National Agricultural Research Systems A system exists which is composed of agencies or actors involved in conducting national agricultural research. Agricultural development is best promoted when the components in a system interact effectively.
New perspectives Paradigm Ontology Epistemology Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems (AKIS) Agricultural research, extension and education operates in one system that generate knowledge and information for farmers. Research and extension are not separate institutions. Farmers, agricultural educators, researchers and extension personnel must be integrated to harness knowledge and information from various sources for better farming and improved livelihoods.
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