Published on September 30, 2014
Paper Writing & Citing WorkshopDr. W. Boone & P. Moore Putting your best thoughts forward September 2014
Objective of the Workshop Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 2 Review processes Reduce your grammatical and style errors Increase your understanding of citations Increase your potential for better grades Reduce this:
Exercise: How do youWrite a Paper Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 3 Take a piece of paper and list the steps that you undergo in writing a paper Pass to the person to your left View slide
Agenda Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 4 Steps to writing an essay Low hanging fruit Reducing Faux Pas’ •Format •Style •Making the Argument / Critical Thinking •Citations and quotations View slide
RTFQ •Note all requirements Pick a topic of interest Discuss with professor •Gainapproval Structure the paper outline •Sections •Include all requirements •What you think that you want to include in the paper oInitial problem statement/thesis/main arguments/potential conclusions and recommendations (TBCin the paper) Steps to writing essays Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 5
Steps (contd) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 6 Review the literature •Add material to the outline •“Recipe card” technique oTie to your outline oAdd new outline bullets as necessary Develop problem statement/thesis/main arguments •To be included in Intro and Conclusion eventually •Take a stand Ensure that they are covered in adequate depth in the paper Complete the annotated bibliography
Steps(contd) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 7 Objective: •Narrow and deep If paper is too short •Add additional arguments If paper is too long •Delete arguments (chunks) •Avoid “pride of ownership” Recommendations to be executable and measurable Draft the intro and conclusion •Introduction: Tell what you are going to tell •Main body: Tell what you want to tell •Conclusion: Tell what you have told
Steps (contd) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 8 Complete the annexes/appendices Bibliography always required Conduct staff check of faux pas •Remove fluff Ensure that all info is on cover page of all submissions (build your own style) •Name •Course •Assignment •Title •Word count Review •Proof-read (limited value) •Disinterested individual (classmates, TAs) proof-read (great value)
Steps (contd) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 9 When it is not yours*, cite! Citation conventions •APA, MLA, Chicago, … •Consistent Make clear when you are giving your opinions, observations, conclusions Footnotes are useful and preferred over end notes •Context, new concepts, etc. Headings and sub-headings (differentiated) Submit in soft copy in the required time Enjoy your success and well-earned mark
Steps (contd) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 10 Objective and focus •Remember that you are writing to a standard for publication in a professional journal and must therefore ensure that you clarify and provide context for all arguments that you make and citations that you use. Some sample phrasing: For the purposes of this paper; in this case, in this instance …” etc. •Include all assumptions
Steps (contd) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 11 Any quotes, figures, charts, graphs, annexes, appendices (to annexes): •must have explanatory sentences for context •must be referred to in the main body Figures, charts, graphs, annexes, appendices should be labelled, titled, and cited if not your own
The ‘low hanging fruit’ Name your files properly •As outlined in the syllabus •Include your name in filename Follow the format given •Check the syllabus Submit on time •Or talk to prof beforehand September 2014 12 Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore
Reducing Faux Pas’: Format (layout on page) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 13 Cover page •Complete and clear •Creativity (witty titles) and personal style Legend •Separate section or document* •Labelled with identifying information (tombstone) as per paper •Entries listed in alphabetical order Table of Contents •Refresh immediately before submitting •Includes annexes and appendices Page numbers •All pages, all subsections
Reducing Faux Pas’: Format (contd) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 14 Strong use of section headings (but not numbered) •Creative titles, subtitles •ensure that levels are clearly differentiated •Indentation of paragraphs must be consistent Fonts used clearly, consistently throughout •Used to differentiate specific content •Consistent capitalization, formatting in headings •Sub-headings different than headings Tables and graphics •Appropriate graphics, addressed in the text •Labelled (and cited if applicable) •Repeat heading rows of tables crossing pages
Reducing Faux Pas’: Format (contd) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 15 Consistency of footnote numbering, punctuation, and capitalization •Use standard formatting/style for citations, references, footnotes •APA Style used in most AP&S journals (more on this) •Note when electronic sources are retrieved Consistency of date, locations •AP&S the convention for dates is day, month, year
Reducing Faux Pas’: Style Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 16 Write using the third person Write in full sentences Snappy titles •Pique the reader’s interest Parallelism •All items in a single list are structured the same (tense, form, number, etc.) e.g., (incorrect): they affect control systems, appliances, vehicles, and interconnect in a panoply of media Sentence structure •Avoid run-on sentences, sentence fragments •Try not to split up sentences with clauses Contractions should not be used in academic papers Numbers 1-9 spelled out Square brackets in round brackets Defined vs. described
Reducing Faux Pas’: Sectioning Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 17 Page numbers required in all submissions Section headings should be titled •Numbers, letters for sections are fine in an outline to show structure, but not in the paper
Reducing Faux Pas’: Making the argument Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 18 Research questions should be open-ended Rationale for topic selection should be included Unclear aim No problem statement No thesis statement No scoping Topic too broad, too many points Why topic chosen Balanced arguments (pros and cons) are required Assertions or recommendations must follow-on from arguments
Making the argument: Critical Thinking What is critical thinking? •Not merely thinking negatively or refuting a proposition Review of arguments •Open-minded •Skeptical •Systematic •Evaluative Argument is the presentation of premises and evidence to support a conclusion September 2014 19 Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore
Making the argument: Critical Thinking (contd) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 20 The first principle is that you must not fool yourself and you are the easiest person to fool. Richard P. Feynman Source: D. Goering https://www.flickr.com/photos/carbonnyc/496721450/
Making the argument: Critical Thinking (contd) September 2014 21 Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore Consider how we reach a conclusion; how we achieve understanding From: Haskins “ A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking” skepdic.com/essays/Haskins.html
Impediments to Critical Thinking Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 22 Human limitations •Biases •Confirmation/selection •Perception/perspective •Knowledge/ Expertise gaps •Information sources •Memory Language •Fuzziness (ambiguity, euphemisms, meaningless) •Technical (jargon, nuance) •Misleading (false comparisons, implications) •Emotion (charismatic, judgmental) Source: www.nytimes.com
Relevance •Ad hominem •Bandwagon •Division/composition •Irrelevant appeals •Red Herring/distraction Ambiguity •Accent/emphasis •Equivocation •Misrepresentation/straw man Presumption •Generalization •False dilemma •Circular reasoning / begging the question •Co-occurrence and correlation •Slippery slope Some Frequent Fallacies Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 23 Source: www.soldeosa.com
Psycho-social Pitfalls September 2014 Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore 24 Communal Reinforcement/Bandwagon Irrelevant appeal to authority Censorship (including self-censorship) •Lawsuit •Politics Either/or Poisoning the well Positive outcome bias Shoehorning Sunk-cost Wishful thinking / evasion
Reducing Faux Pas’ -Content Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 25 Explain terminology and set assumptions Use short explanatory footnotes for concepts or terms not covered in the main body Acronyms spelled out fully on first occurrence and used consistently thereafter Explain all metaphors and consider putting in single quote marks unless a direct quote. e.g., Carrot/stick Make segues between sections and connections to preceding graphics If including graphics, attribute them and ensure that you explain why they are included (the “so what” that the reader is to glean). Consider whether it is better to imbed them or relegate to annexes Beware of superlatives unless certain Syntax Nouns and verbs match with subjects and objects (the three vulnerabilities are… ) Use consistent tense: past, present or future, but settle on one
Reducing Faux Pas’: References, Quotes & Citations Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 26 APA format –used in most AP&S journals The citation is part of the sentence, so punctuation goes after it (e.g., period). Punctuation goes inside of quote marks When the quote is yours, for emphasis, use single quote marks. When it is someone else’s use double quotes and cite, with page # or section/paragraph # Use direct quotes, indirect quotes and footnotes appropriately Bibliography is in alphabetic order Include date when electronic sources were retrieved.
Reducing Faux Pas’: Grammar and Syntax September 2014 27 Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore Use Canadian spelling Use consistent hyphenation Avoid splitting verbs if, … , then Hyphens Colons, semi-colons and commas -------; however, -------- Put the however at the beginning of the sentence/clause Avoid pedestrian words done happen did get issue etc. Beware of misused words its vs. it’s between and among as vs. since or because compliment vs. complement i.e., vs. e.g., “comprise” is a transitive verb
Reducing Faux Pas’: Grammar and Syntax (contd) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 28 Must vs. have to Plural of acronyms/abbreviations: add ‘s’ (no apostrophe) Tense does not match referrent(subject, object) e.g. (incorrect), employee, their … When referring to persons, use “who” and not “that” Data are plural Plural of p. is pp. …that…
Reducing Faux Pas: General Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 29 No apparent proof reading or peer review Redundancy, e.g., all………… all ! means that this is another example of a comment made earlier
Time will tell….. Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 30
A brief introduction using APA format Referencing and citation September 2014 31 Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore With grateful credit to: University of Purdue -OWL (Online Writing Lab) UniversitiTunkuAbdul Rahman (Malaysia) Thomas Holgate Library, Bennett College
Why cite? Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 32 “To demonstrate your integrity and skill as a responsible participant in the conversation of scholarship.” (Dartmouth College, 2007) •Give credit where credit is due •Demonstrate support for your arguments •Acknowledging counter-arguments •Give context for ideas •Aid readers in further research •Transparency of source •Disambiguityof authors, sources, and works
Is it plagarism? Rephrased concept Several authors agree Just a few words Unassailable fact Paper of your own Adage or proverb Web site Government report Wikipedia Conversation Public presentation Academic paper Newspaper article September 2014 33 Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore
Plagarism–what is it? Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 34 Academic and intellectual misconduct “Cheating, plagiarism and/or other breaches of academic integrity as identified in the Calendar may result in penalties including a lower or failing grade, removal from the course, removal from the program, suspension or expulsion from studies at the University.” (Carleton Policy on Academic Integrity, c2009) Theft Fraud “Furthermore, in an applied degree program focusing on protection and security, breaches of integrity are antithetical to doctrine and practice of AP&S.” (Syllabus IPIS 5101, 2013)
Attribution types Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 35 In-text citation •Direct form •In-direct form Direct quotation Significant quotation. Footnote Reference List All in-text or parenthetical references must have a corresponding entry cited in the References list.
In-Text Citations Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 36 One Work by One Author •Corresponding bibliography or reference list entry: Taylor, M. M. (2000). Study of personalities and character. Journal of Psychology, 93(1), 257-267. •Direct reference in the text: According to Taylor (2000), the personalities of … •Indirect reference in the text: In a study of personalities and character (Taylor, 2000) …
In-Text Citations (cont.) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 37 One Work by Multiple authors (3-7 authors) •Direct reference in the text: Skinner, Cornell, Sun, and Harlow, 1993found… (1stcitation in text) Skinner et al. (1993) found … (Subsequent citations) •Indirect reference: Skinner et al. also found … (Omit year from subsequent citations after first citation within a paragraph) •Corresponding bibliography or reference list entry: Skinner, M. E., Cornell, R. C., Sun, K. F., & Harlow, R. P. (1993). Small group learning, Psychological Bulletin, 26, 57-63.(List all authors)
In-Text Citations (cont.) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 38 Groups as Authors Write down corporate author in full every time if the abbreviation is NOT common. Example: (UniversitiTunkuAbdul Rahman, 2010) If group author is easily identified by its abbreviation, you may abbreviate the name in the second and subsequent citations: Examples: (Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development [DFAIT], 2013) 1st citation (DFAIT, 2013) Subsequent text citation
In-Text Citations: Works with no author Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 39 Cite the first few words of the reference list entry •Usually the title of the article or newspaper •Use “ ” and italics •Include the year of publication Direct reference in the text: Many mentally ill drinkers seek the help from… (“Alcohol and the risk,” 2006). Corresponding bibliography or reference list entry: Alcohol and the risk of cancer. (2006, October 10). The Straits Times, p. 32.
Quotations –short (<40 words) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 40 Quote directly -include the author, year of publication, and the page number. Direct reference in the text: According to Becker (1995), "Network processing: The movement of data over the links that interconnect the various nodes (workstations, servers, mainframes, routers, etc.) of the network." (p. 174). Corresponding bibliography or reference list entry: Becker, H. B. (1995). Disaster recovery long-range planning: A mandatory evolution for protecting data.International Journal of Network Management,5(4), 174-180. doi:10.1002/nem.4560050403
Quotations –long ( >40 words) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 41 Use block form, indent 5 spaces for entire quote Use consistent spacing with rest of document Do not use “ ” Use elipsis(…) to indicate omitted words Use square brackets [ ] to indicate added or altered words Direct reference in the text: We agree with Mulcahy(2010), who concluded: The conceptualization of the issues and the justifications provided in support of them often differ. Yet, on the crucial issues of purpose and curriculum, the primacy of intellectual formation highlighted in two landmark works of the nineteenth century… remained constant until and even beyond the mid-twentieth century. (p.305) Corresponding bibliography or reference list entry: Mulcahy, D. G. (2010). Praxis and pedagogy as related to the arts and humanities.Arts and Humanities in Higher Education. October 2010vol. 9no. 3, 305-321.
Reference lists: The Basics Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 42 Invert authors’names (last name, followed by initials: Cook, W.E.M.) Alphabetize list entries by last name of the first author of each work Corporate entities are treated as authors in the absence of personal author Where neither personal nor corporate author is available, sort by title.
Reference Lists: The Basics (cont.) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 43 Capitalize all major words in journal titles Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word. Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections
Anatomy of a Reference Entry Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 44 Rummler, G. A., & Brache, A. P., (c1995).Improving performance how to manage the white space on the organization chart(2nd ed.). San Francisco, Calif. : Jossey-Bass.
Sample Reference Entries Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 45 American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. doi:10:1002//piq.20033 Education Handbook.(2005). London: Longman. McGill, K. (2006). Reading the valley: performance as a rhetoric of dimension, Text and Performance Quarterly, 26(4), 389-404. Pelling, N. (2002, May 5). The use of technology in career counseling.Journal of Technology in Counseling (2). Retrieved from http://jtc.colstate.edu/pelling.htm Playfair, J. H., Gardner, M., & Bancroft, G. J. (2004). Infection and immunity.(2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. What I did today.(n.d.). Retrieved August 21, 2010, from http://www.cc.mystory.life/blog/didtoday.html Zautra, A. (2006). Emotions, stress, and health.New York: Oxford University Press.
Citations and Presentations Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 46 Treat your presentation like any other research paper Provide citations and a bibliography for ALL outside sources, including: •Direct quotations •Paraphrased ideas •Tables, data and dashboards •Images (e.g. photos, illustrations, maps, etc.) •Video and audio files Oral references, quotes and citations should be backed up with written citations in your slides Adapted from: APA Style PowerPoint Presentations. Holgate Library, Bennett College. http://libraryguides.bennett.edu/home/library-tutorials/apa-style-presentations (accessed 16 Sept 2014)
Example –Title slide Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 47
Example slide Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 48
QUESTIONS / DISCUSSION
Final Thought: Argumentative Essay by the Numbers (P. Moore) Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 50 1.Here is a problem I have observed. 2.I think this is a problem because … 3.I believe (either): a.that solution is (or lies in this area) … b.this results from .... 4.here are my ideas … which are supported by some other smart people 5....and contested by other smart people, 6.but these are less relevant because... 7.And so you can see that my idea in 3 is reasonable and well-founded because of 4s 8.and so we should proceed in this manner. … 9.which will address 1 and 2
Feedback Writing & Citing Workshop - Boone & Moore September 2014 51 Feedback, suggestions or corrections on this presentation are gratefully encouraged. Please contact the presenters at: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com