Paper battery The Future of Batteries

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Information about Paper battery The Future of Batteries

Published on January 15, 2014

Author: kedarnaik359


SY EJ 1st Shift Sri Savitribai Phule Polytechnic PAPER BATTERY by- Kedar,Narsing,Neel&Prasad Department of Electronics & Telecommunications 1

Cellulose Paper + Nano-technology ___________________________ ? An Overview of the battery technology that powers our mobile society. 2

Battery Chemistry • Electrochemical reaction - a chemical reaction between elements which creates electrons. • Oxidation occurs on the metals (“electrodes”), which creates the electrons. • Electrons are transferred down the pile via the saltwater paper (the “electrolyte”). • A charge is introduced at one pole, which builds as it moves down the pile. 3

Lithium (Ion) Battery Development • In the 1970’s, Lithium metal was used but its instability rendered it unsafe and impractical. • Lithium-cobalt oxide and graphite are now used as the lithium-Ionmoving electrodes. • The Lithium-Ion battery has a slightly lower energy density than Lithium metal, but is much safer. Introduced by Sony in 1991. 4

Recharge-ability & the “memory effect” • Recharge-ability: basically, when the direction of electron discharge (negative to positive) is reversed, restoring power. • The Memory Effect: (generally) When a battery is repeatedly recharged before it has discharged more than half of its power, it will “forget” its original power capacity. • Cadmium crystals are the culprit! (NiCd) 5

Advantages of Using Li-Ion Batteries • POWER – High energy density means greater power in a smaller package. – 160% greater than NiMH – 220% greater than NiCd • HIGHER VOLTAGE – a strong current allows it to power complex mechanical devices. • LONG SHELF-LIFE – only 5% discharge loss per month. – 10% for NiMH, 20% for NiCd 6

Examples • MP3 Player/ iPod • Mobile • Laptop 7

Disadvantages of Li-Ion • EXPENSIVE -- 40% more than NiCd. • DELICATE -- battery temp must be monitored from within (which raises the price), and sealed particularly well. • REGULATIONS -- when shipping Li-Ion batteries in bulk (which also raises the price). – Class 9 miscellaneous hazardous material 8

Environmental Impact of Li-Ion Batteries • Rechargeable batteries are often recyclable. • Oxidized Lithium is nontoxic, and can be extracted from the battery, neutralized, and used as feedstock for new Li-Ion batteries. 9

Micro-Generated Energy Storage • Li-Ion batteries recharge quickly and hold their charge longer, which provides flexibility to the micro-generator. particularly helpful for wind and solar generators! • Lightness, and power per volume allow for storage and design flexibility. 10

“Nano”-Science and-Technology • The attempt to manufacture and control objects at the atomic and molecular level (i.e. 100 nanometers or smaller). • 1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter (10-9) • 1 nanometer : 1 meter :: 1 marble : Earth • 1 sheet of paper = 100,000 nanometers 11

THE INTERSECTION NanoScience Battery Paper Battery 12

Abstract • A Conventional Battery takes up a huge amount of space and contributes to a large part of the device's weight. • Paper Battery is flexible and ultra thin energy storage device. It acts as both high-energy battery and supercapacitor. This combination allows the battery to provide both long term, steady power production of energy. • It can be folded, cut or otherwise shaped for different applications with out loss of efficiency. Cutting one in half, halves its energy production. 14

Introduction Paper Batteries will replace the conventional batteries and Li-ion batteries Anatomy of paper battery is based on the use of Carbon Nano-tubes tiny cylinders to collect electric charge. Paper as a medium is the welldesigned structure of millions of interconnected fibers in it. These fibers can hold on carbon nano tubes easily. 15

Cellulose paper + Nano Technology = Paper Battery Introduction Formed by combining carbon nano-tubes with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper. Nano-tubes acts as electrodes, allowing the storage devices to conduct electricity. Paper battery integrates all of the battery components in a single structure, makes it more energy efficient. Carbon Nano-tubes exhibit extra-ordinary strength and unique electrical properties. 16

Working Conventional Battery Vs Paper Battery Conventional Battery produce electrons through a chemical reaction between electrolyte and metal Chemical reaction in Paper Battery is between electrolyte and carbon nano-tubes Electrons must flow from negative to positive terminal for the chemical reaction The Paper electrode stores charge while recharging in 10 seconds because ions flow through the thin electrode quickly 18


First Black Carbon Ink is applied on a cellulose paper 21

Black Carbon Ink is being spread on the paper 22

Then it is heated in an Oven, preheated at 150 degree centigrade It is heated so that the carbon nanotubes get attached to the paper properly 23



Materials & Description This energy storage device is based on two basic, inexpensive materials: carbon nanotubes and cellulose. Also an ionic liquid provides the third component: electrolyte. Engineered together, they form Nano composite paper. It is as thin and flexible as a piece of paper—it can be twisted, folded, rolled and cut to fit any space without losing any of its energy. The paper battery can also be stacked to boost the total power output. 27

WHAT IS A CARBON NANOTUBE? • A carbon nanotube is a tube-shaped material, made of carbon, having a diameter measuring on the nanometer scale. • A nanometer is one billionth of the meter or about one ten-thousandth the thickness of the human hair. • The graphite layer appears somewhat like a rolled-up chicken wire with a continuous unbroken hexagonal mesh and carbon molecules at the apexes of the hexagons. • Carbon Nanotubes have many structures, differing in length, thickness, and in the type of helicity and number of layers. • Although they are formed from essentially the same graphite sheet, their electrical characteristics differ depending on these variations, acting either as metals or as semiconductors. 28

• As a group, Carbon Nanotubes typically have diameters ranging from <1 nm up to 50 nm. Their lengths are typically several microns, but recent advancements have made the nanotubes much longer, and measured in centimeters. • . They are among the stiffest and strongest fibers known, and have remarkable electronic properties and many other unique characteristics. 29

Carbon Nanotubes can be categorized by their structures: Single-wall Nanotubes (SWNT) Double-wall Nanotubes (DWNT) Multi-wall Nanotubes (MWNT) 30

What are the Properties of a Carbon Nanotube? • The intrinsic mechanical and transport properties of Carbon Nanotubes make them the ultimate carbon fibers. • The following tables compare these properties to other engineering materials. Mechanical properties of engineering fibers are: Fiber material Specific density Energy Strength Strain at break(%) Carbon nanotube 1.3 to 2 1 10 to 60 10 Carbon fiber-PAN 1.7 to 2 0.2 to 0.6 1.7 to 5 0.3 to2.4 Carbon fiberPITCH 2 to 2.2 0.4 to 0.96 2.2 to 3.3 0.27 to 0.6 Glass 2.5 0.07/0.08 2.4/4.5 4.8 Kelvar*49 1.4 0.13 3.6 to 4.1 2.8 Steel 7.8 0.2 4.1 <10 31

• Transport properties of conductive materials are: Material Thermal conductivity (w/mk) Electrical conductivity Carbon nanotube >3000 106 to 107 Copper 400 6*107 Carbon fiber-PITCH 1000 2 to 8.5 Carbon fiber-PAN 8 to 105 6.5 to 14 • Overall, Carbon Nanotubes show a unique combination of stiffness, strength, and tenacity compared to other fiber materials which usually lack one or more of these properties. • Thermal and electrical conductivity are also very high, and comparable to other conductive materials. 32

Advantages 1. It can be Rolled, twisted, folded or cut into numerous shapes 2. No loss of integrity/efficiency 3. Light weight 4. Bio-degradable and Non-toxic 5. It can be a Super Capacitor 33

Advantages  Flat discharge curve - Paper batteries disposable thin battery's cells feature a straight and stable discharge curve until complete depletion of their capacity, enabling steady performance of powered products over time. 34

Advantages  High safety features - Paper batteries disposable thin battery's cells contain no caustic chemicals, and cannot overheat, explode, or cause burns or electrical shock. They are non-toxic and non-flammable and can therefore be freely shipped, stored, and disposed of after use.  Fully integratable – Paper batteries disposable thin battery's cells can be printed directly into or onto the endproduct for seamless integration. Part of the cells may even have dual functions to serve the purpose of the end-product. 35

Applications As alternate to conventional batteries in gadgets Powered smart cards RF id tags E-cards, E-greetings and Talking posters Pacemakers in the heart (uses blood as electrolyte) 36

Paper Battery in the field of Cosmetics The Active Cosmetic Patch made from paper battery effectively improves the delivery of cosmetic active ingredients, reducing the appearance of wrinkles and other age signs. • Mode of Action The micro-current drives actives from the active electrode into the stratum corneum (the outermost layer of the skin). In doing so, it drives the active ingredients to the specific treatment area. BEFORE Post 20 Min. 37

Paper Battery in the field of Pharmaceuticals • Iontophoresis process is done using a Paper battery. • The Paper battery uses electrical energy to enhance the delivery of drugs through biological membranes such as the skin or the nail. 38


Disadvantages Carbon nano-tubes are very expensive. Batteries with large enough power are unlikely to be cost effective. For a commercial viabilities, these batteries have to be scaled up to sheets of newspaper size. Replacing the old batteries results wastage of old electronic goods. Generation of e-waste. 40

Conclusion Saving energy is the best way to re-cycle the energy  The life of battery is an important parameter which decides the area of application of battery.  These paper batteries can further reduce the weight of the electronic gadgets.  The future may allow simply painting the nano-tube ink and active materials onto surfaces such as walls.  High storage of energy leads to decrease charging time. Thus energy can be saved 42

Conclusion Saving energy is the best way to re-cycle the energy  This energy storage device is cost-effective because the device can be able to be used in the smallest and most diversely designed electronics. Such as cell phones, mp3 players and medical equipment.  The researchers say that it can also be used in automobiles and aircraft. But it has a poor processibility, being that it is particularly insoluble of infusible. Lastly, the use of ionic liquid makes the device environmentally friendly; a major concern in nanotechnology. 43

PAPER BATTERY Kedar,Narsing,Neel,Prasad Thank You 44

Books Used & Read……….  Physics Textbook G-scheme (Electrical Group)  Chemistry Textbooks G-scheme (Electrical Group)  Basic Electronics  All about “Carbon & Compound Structures” 45

Links to References 46

? Queries ? Paper Battery 47

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