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Published on November 21, 2007

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Proposition Bank: a resource of predicate-argument relations:  Proposition Bank: a resource of predicate-argument relations Martha Palmer University of Pennsylvania October 9, 2001 Columbia University Outline:  Outline Overview (Ace consensus: BBN,NYU,MITRE,Penn) Motivation Approach Guidelines, lexical resources, frame sets Tagging process, hand correction of automatic tagging Status: accuracy, progress Colleagues: Joseph Rosenzweig, Paul Kingsbury, Hoa Dang, Karin Kipper, Scott Cotton, Laren Delfs, Christiane Fellbaum Proposition Bank: Generalizing from Sentences to Propositions:  Proposition Bank: Generalizing from Sentences to Propositions Powell met Zhu Rongji When Powell met Zhu Rongji on Thursday they discussed the return of the spy plane. meet(Powell, Zhu) discuss([Powell, Zhu], return(X, plane)) meet(Somebody1, Somebody2) Penn English Treebank:  Penn English Treebank 1.3 million words Wall Street Journal and other sources Tagged with Part-of-Speech Syntactically Parsed Widely used in NLP community Available from Linguistic Data Consortium A TreeBanked Sentence:  A TreeBanked Sentence Analysts S NP-SBJ VP NP *T*-1 S NP-SBJ VP would NP PP-LOC (S (NP-SBJ Analysts) (VP have (VP been (VP expecting (NP (NP a GM-Jaguar pact) (SBAR (WHNP-1 that) (S (NP-SBJ *T*-1) (VP would (VP give (NP the U.S. car maker) (NP (NP an eventual (ADJP 30 %) stake) (PP-LOC in (NP the British company)))))))))))) Analysts have been expecting a GM-Jaguar pact that would give the U.S. car maker an eventual 30% stake in the British company. The same sentence, PropBanked:  The same sentence, PropBanked Analysts have been expecting Arg0 Arg1 (S Arg0 (NP-SBJ Analysts) (VP have (VP been (VP expecting Arg1 (NP (NP a GM-Jaguar pact) (SBAR (WHNP-1 that) (S Arg0 (NP-SBJ *T*-1) (VP would (VP give Arg2 (NP the U.S. car maker) Arg1 (NP (NP an eventual (ADJP 30 %) stake) (PP-LOC in (NP the British company)))))))))))) expect(Analysts, GM-J pact) give(GM-J pact, US car maker, 30% stake) Motivation:  Motivation Why do we need accurate predicate-argument relations? They have a major impact on Information Processing. Ex: Korean/English Machine Translation: ARL/SBIR CoGenTex, Penn, Systran (K/E Bilinugal Lexicon, 20K) 4K words ( < 500 words from Systran, military messages) Plug and play architecture based on DsyntS (rich dependency structure) Converter bug led to random relabeling of predicate arguments Correction of predicate argument labels alone led to tripling of acceptable sentence output Focusing on Parser comparisons :  Focusing on Parser comparisons 200 sentences hand selected to represent “good” translations given a correct parse. Used to compare: Corrected DsyntS output Juntae’s parser output (off-the-shelf) Anoop’s parser output (Treebank trained, 95% F) Evaluating translation quality:  Evaluating translation quality Compare DLI Human translation to system output (200) Criteria used by human judges (2 or more, not blind) [g] = good, exactly right [f1] = fairly good, but small grammatical mistakes [f2] = Needs fixing, but vocabulary basically there [f3] = Needs quite a bit of fixing, usually some un-translated vocabulary, but most v. is right [m] = seems grammatical, but semantically wrong, actually misleading [i] = irredeemable, really wrong, major problems Results Comparison = 200 sent.:  Results Comparison = 200 sent. Plug and play?:  Plug and play? Converter used to map Parser outputs into MT DsyntS format Bug in the converter affected both systems Predicate argument structure labels were being lost in the conversion process, relabeled randomly The converter was also still tuned to Juntae’s parse output, needed to be customized to Anoop’s Anoop’s parse -> MTW DsyntS:  Anoop’s parse -> MTW DsyntS 0010Target: Unit designations are normally transmitted in code. 0010Corrected: Normally unit designations are notified in the code. 0010Anoop: Normally it is notified unit designations in code. notified unit normally code designations C = Arg1 P = Arg0 Anoop’s parse -> MTW DsyntS:  Anoop’s parse -> MTW DsyntS 0022Target: Under what circumstances does radio inteference occur? 0022Corrected: In what circumstances does the interference happen in the radio? 0022Anoop: Do in what circumstance happen interference in radio? happen what radio interference circumstances C = Arg0 P = ArgM C = Arg1 P = Arg0 New and Old Results Comparison:  New and Old Results Comparison English PropBank :  English PropBank 1M words of Treebank over 2 years, May’01-03 New semantic augmentations Predicate-argument relations for verbs label arguments: Arg0, Arg1, Arg2, … First subtask, 300K word financial subcorpus (12K sentences, 35K+ predicates) Spin-off: Guidelines (necessary for annotators) English lexical resource 6000+ verbs with labeled examples, rich semantics Task: not just undoing passives:  Task: not just undoing passives The earthquake shook the building. <arg0> <WN3> <arg1> The walls shook; the building rocked. <arg1> <WN3>; <arg1> <WN1> The guidelines = lexicon with examples: Frames Files Guidelines: Frames Files:  Guidelines: Frames Files Created manually – Paul Kingsbury working on semi-automatic expansion Refer to VerbNet, WordNet and Framenet Currently in place for 230 verbs Can expand to 2000+ using VerbNet Will need hand correction Use “semantic role glosses” unique to each verb (map to Arg0, Arg1 labels appropriate to class) Slide18:  Frames Example: expect Roles: Arg0: expecter Arg1: thing expected Example: Transitive, active: Portfolio managers expect further declines in interest rates. Arg0: Portfolio managers REL: expect Arg1: further declines in interest rates Frames File example: give:  Frames File example: give Roles: Arg0: giver Arg1: thing given Arg2: entity given to Example: double object The executives gave the chefs a standing ovation. Arg0: The executives REL: gave Arg2: the chefs Arg1: a standing ovation The same sentence, PropBanked:  The same sentence, PropBanked Analysts have been expecting Arg0 Arg1 (S Arg0 (NP-SBJ Analysts) (VP have (VP been (VP expecting Arg1 (NP (NP a GM-Jaguar pact) (SBAR (WHNP-1 that) (S Arg0 (NP-SBJ *T*-1) (VP would (VP give Arg2 (NP the U.S. car maker) Arg1 (NP (NP an eventual (ADJP 30 %) stake) (PP-LOC in (NP the British company)))))))))))) expect(Analysts, GM-J pact) give(GM-J pact, US car maker, 30% stake) Slide21:  Complete Sentence Analysts have been expecting a GM-Jaguar pact that *T*-1 would give the U.S. car maker an eventual 30% stake in the British company and create joint ventures that *T*-2 would produce an executive-model range of cars. How are arguments numbered?:  How are arguments numbered? Examination of example sentences Determination of required / highly preferred elements Sequential numbering, Arg0 is typical first argument, except ergative/unaccusative verbs (shake example) Arguments mapped for "synonymous" verbs Additional tags (arguments or adjuncts?):  Additional tags (arguments or adjuncts?) Variety of ArgM’s (Arg#>4): TMP - when? LOC - where at? DIR - where to? MNR - how? PRP -why? REC - himself, themselves, each other PRD -this argument refers to or modifies another ADV -others Tense/aspect:  Tense/aspect Verbs also marked for tense/aspect Passive Perfect Progressive Infinitival Modals and negation marked as ArgMs Ergative/Unaccusative Verbs: rise:  Ergative/Unaccusative Verbs: rise Roles Arg1 = Logical subject, patient, thing rising Arg2 = EXT, amount risen Arg3* = start point Arg4 = end point Sales rose 4% to $3.28 billion from $3.16 billion. *Note: Have to mention prep explicitly, Arg3-from, Arg4-to, or could have used ArgM-Source, ArgM-Goal. Arbitrary distinction. Synonymous Verbs: add in sense rise:  Synonymous Verbs: add in sense rise Roles: Arg1 = Logical subject, patient, thing rising/gaining/being added to Arg2 = EXT, amount risen Arg4 = end point The Nasdaq composite index added 1.01 to 456.6 on paltry volume. Phrasal Verbs:  Phrasal Verbs Put together Put in Put off Put on Put out Put up ... Frames: Multiple Rolesets :  Frames: Multiple Rolesets Rolesets are not necessarily consistent between different senses of the same verb Verb with multiple senses can have multiple frames, but not necessarily Roles and mappings onto argument labels are consistent between different verbs that share similar argument structures, Similar to Framenet Levin / VerbNet classes http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~dgildea/VerbNet/ Out of the 179 most frequent verbs: 1 Roleset – 92 2 rolesets – 45 3+ rolesets – 42 (includes light verbs) Annotation procedure:  Annotation procedure Extraction of all sentences with given verb First pass – automatic tagging Second pass: Double blind hand correction Variety of backgrounds less syntactic training than for treebanking Script to discover discrepancies Third pass: Solomonization (adjudication) Inter-annotator agreement:  Inter-annotator agreement Annotator Accuracy vs. Gold Standard:  Annotator Accuracy vs. Gold Standard One version of annotation chosen (sr. annotator) Solomon modifies => Gold Standard Status:  Status 179 verbs framed (+ Senseval2 verbs) 97 verbs first-passed 12,300+ predicates Does not include ~3000 predicates tagged for Senseval 54 verbs second-passed 6600+ predicates 9 verbs solomonized 885 predicates Throughput:  Throughput Framing: approximately 2 verbs per hour Annotation: approximately 50 sentences per hour Solomonization: approximately 1 hour per verb Automatic Predicate Argument Tagger:  Automatic Predicate Argument Tagger Predicate argument labels Uses TreeBank “cues” Consults lexical semantic KB Hierarchically organized verb subcategorization frames and alternations associated with tree templates Ontology of noun-phrase referents Multi-word lexical items Matches annotated tree templates against parse in Tree-adjoining Grammar style standoff annotation in external file referencing treenodes Preliminary accuracy rate of 83.7% (800+ predicates) Summary:  Summary Predicate-argument structure labels are arbitrary to a certain degree, but still consistent, and generic enough to be mappable to particular theoretical frameworks Automatic tagging as a first pass makes the task feasible Agreement and accuracy figures are reassuring Solomonization:  Solomonization Source tree: Intel told analysts that the company will resume shipments of the chips within two to three weeks . *** kate said: arg0 : Intel arg1 : the company will resume shipments of the chips within two to three weeks arg2 : analysts *** erwin said: arg0 : Intel arg1 : that the company will resume shipments of the chips within two to three weeks arg2 : analysts Solomonization:  Solomonization Such loans to Argentina also remain classified as non-accruing, *TRACE*-1 costing the bank $ 10 million *TRACE*-*U* of interest income in the third period. *** kate said: argM-TMP : in the third period arg3 : the bank arg2 : $ 10 million *TRACE*-*U* of interest income arg1 : *TRACE*-1 *** erwin said: argM-TMP : in the third period arg3 : the bank arg2 : $ 10 million *TRACE*-*U* of interest income arg1 : *TRACE*-1 Such loans to Argentina Solomonization:  Solomonization Also , substantially lower Dutch corporate tax rates helped the company keep its tax outlay flat relative to earnings growth. *** kate said: argM-MNR : relative to earnings growth arg3-PRD : flat arg1 : its tax outlay arg0 : the company *** katherine said: argM-ADV : relative to earnings growth arg3-PRD : flat arg1 : its tax outlay arg0 : the company

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