P1 Unit 3

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Information about P1 Unit 3
Technology

Published on March 13, 2014

Author: JamesColwell

Source: slideshare.net

P1 – Identify and explain the functions of common components of a computer system

Mother Board  This is also known as the mainboard.  Ever component in the computer connect to it so it is the back bone of the computer.  You will find most of the computer parts on the mother board.  This is the most important part of the computer.  ATX Some of the design specification improvements of the ATX form factor included a single 20-pin connector for the power supply, a power supply to blow air into the case instead of out for better air flow. This also reduced the size of motherboards for big towers. The ATX form factor was an overall better design for upgrading. This also reduced the size of motherboards for big towers.

 LPX This motherboard has riser card arrangement for expansion cards where expansion boards run parallel to the motherboard. While this allows for smaller cases it also limits the number of expansion slots available. Most LPX motherboards have sound and video integrated onto the motherboard. The LPX form factor is not suited to upgrading and offer poor cooling.  NLX This "updated LPX" form factor offered support for larger memory modules, tower cases, AGP video support and reduced cable length. In addition, motherboards are easier to remove. The NLX form factor, unlike LPX is an actual standard which means there is more component options for upgrading and repair. Many systems that were formerly designed to fit the LPX form factor are moving over to NLX. The NLX form factor is well- suited to mass-market retail PCs.  BTX The BTX was developed to take advantage of technologies such as Serial ATA, USB 2.0, and PCI Express. Changes to the layout with the BTX form factor include better component placement for back panel I/O controllers. The most well known features is the BTX form factor is that it uses in-line airflow. In the BTX form factor the memory slots and expansion slots have switched places, allowing the main components to use the same airflow which reduces the number of fans needed in the system so it will reduce noise.

CPU  This chip is the thinker of the computer also known as Processer.  You will find the processor on the mother board.  There are two companies who make CPU they are Intel and AMD.  You will find the heat sink on top of the CPU.  RISC 1. RISC processors use a small and limited number of instructions. 2. RISC machines mostly uses hardwired control unit. 3. RISC processors consume less power and are having high performance. 4. Each instruction is very simple and consistent. 5. RISC processors uses simple addressing modes. 6. RISC instruction is of uniform fixed length. 7. IBM RS6000, MC88100 8. DEC’s Alpha 21064, 21164 and 21264 processors

 CISC 1. CISC chips have a large amount of different and complex instructions. 2. CISC machines generally make use of complex addressing modes. 3. Different machine programs can be executed on CISC machine. 4. CISC machines uses micro-program control unit. 5. CISC processors are having limited number of registers. 6. Intel 386, 486, Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Pentium III 7. Motorola’s 68000, 68020, 68040, etc.  The purpose of overclocking is to increase the operating speed of given hardware. The trade-offs are an increase in power consumption and fan noise, the system can become unstable if the equipment is overclocked too much, and the risk of damage due to excessive overvoltage or heat generation.  The duel cord processor is two times the speed of a single cord processor and it is two processors in one and so this means that it can be twice as fast.  The 64 bit processor can cooperates with more RAM but everything is the same as a 32 bit but the 32 bit can on use up to 5 GB of RAM.

RAM  RAM stand for Random Access Memory.  This will make a computer run faster  The Ram also lets you open more programmes at one time without the computer crashing.  The RAM is found on the mother board.  SRAM: Static uses multiple transistors, typically four to six, for each memory cell but doesn't have a capacitor in each cell.  DRAM: Dynamic random access memory has memory cells with a paired transistor and capacitor requiring constant refreshing.  FPM DRAM: Fast page mode dynamic random access memory was the original form of DRAM. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 176 MBps.

 EDO DRAM: Extended data-out dynamic random access memory does not wait for all of the processing. As soon as the address of the first bit is located, EDO DRAM begins looking for the next bit. It is about five percent faster than FPM. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 264 MBps.  SDRAM: Takes advantage of the burst mode concept to greatly improve performance.. The idea is that most of the time the data needed by the CPU will be in sequence. SDRAM is about five percent faster than EDO RAM and is the most common form in desktops today. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 528 MBps.  DDR SDRAM: Double data rate synchronous dynamic RAM is just like SDRAM except that is has higher bandwidth, meaning greater speed. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 1,064 MBps.  RDRAM: What makes RDRAM so different is its use of a special high-speed data bus called the Rambus channel. RDRAM memory chips work in parallel to achieve a data rate of 800 MHz, or 1,600 MBps. Since they operate at such high speeds, they generate much more heat than other types of chips. To help get rid of the heat Rambus chips are fitted with a heat spreader. This is designed for notebook computers.

 Credit Card Memory: Credit card memory is a proprietary self-contained DRAM memory module that plugs into a special slot for use in notebook computers.  PCMCIA Memory Card: Another self-contained DRAM module for notebooks, cards of this type are not proprietary and should work with any notebook computer whose system bus matches the memory card's configuration.  CMOS RAM: CMOS RAM is a term for the small amount of memory used by your computer and some other devices to remember things like hard disk settings.  VRAM: VideoRAM, also known as multiport dynamic random access memory, is a type of RAM used specifically for video adapters or 3-D accelerators. VRAM is located on the graphics card and comes in a variety of formats, many of which are proprietary. The amount of VRAM is a determining factor in the resolution and color depth of the display. VRAM is also used to hold graphics-specific information such as 3-D geometry. True multiport VRAM tends to be expensive, so today, many graphics cards use SGRAM instead.

Power supply  This is wear all of the electricity comes into and this converts it for AC to DC.  The four basic units of power are Voltage (V), Current (I, )Power (P), Resistance (R)  The Power supply give the computer it power and shares it out separately to all the components.  Different size power supply for different types of computers.

Heat Sink  The heat sink is used to keep the processor cool so it doesn’t over heat.  You will find the heat sink on the processor.  The space between the processor and the fan will help the heat rise and make the processor cooler.

Graphics Card  This card gives and accelerates your graphics on your computer screen.  This is connected to the mother board and used on high end computers.  Gaming computer may have many of the graphics card in one computer.  You may have a fan on the graphics card.

Hard Drive  This is a storage device but a lot of people think it is memory.  This retrieval documents faster.  You save your operating system on your hard drive.  The bigger the hard drive the more documents you can save on your computer.  IDE: Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) is the type of connection used to connect the hard drive to the motherboard. The IDE cables are usually flat, gray ribbon type cable with connectors on either end.  EIDE: This is an enhanced IDE and supports faster transfers rates.  SATA: SATA is an abbreviation for Serial ATA which is an interface used in computer for storage devices.

 PATA: Parallel ATA is a standard for connecting hard drives into computer systems. As its name implies, PATA is based on parallel signaling technology, unlike serial ATA devices that use serial signaling technology.  SCSI: Stands for "Small Computer System Interface”. SCSI is a computer interface used primarily for high-speed hard drives. This is because SCSI can support faster data transfer rates than the commonly used IDE storage interface.

Optical Drive  This is where you put you disk into the computer.  The optical drive reads the disk by using lasers and processing that data to the computer.  This is found at the front of the computer.

South Bridge  This is one of two bridges, the other one is called north bridge.  The south bridge controls all the output and input devises.  The south controls PIC, USB, ISA, IDE, BIOS and the legacy.  You find this on the mother board.

North Bridge  This is one of two bridges, the other one is called south bridge.  The north bridge helps out the mother board and helps the mother bard run.  The north controls RAM, CPU and AGP.  You find this on the mother board.

BIOS  The BIOS is found on the mother board.  BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System.  BIOS software is built in to the PC and automatically turns on when you start the computer on.

Memory Modules  This is wear you you put your RAM to connect it into the hard drive.  DIP: Short for Dual In-line Memory Module is a circuit board that holds memory chips. DIMMs have a 64-bit path because of the Pentium Processor requirements..  SIMM: Short for Single In-line Memory Module is a circuit board that holds six to nine memory chips per board, the ninth chip usually an error checking chip and were commonly used with Intel Pentium or Pentium compatible motherboards.  RIMM: RIMM is computer memory that resembles DIMMs; however, it is 184-pin and is available with built in ECC support and Non-ECC at speeds up to 800MHz. RIMM modules are commonly used on the Intel Pentium 4 motherboards.  Cache: Cache is a high-speed access area that can be either a reserved section of main memory or a storage device. The two main cache types are memory cache and disk cache. Memory cache is a portion on memory of high-speed static RAM.

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