Overt or Covert

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Information about Overt or Covert

Published on November 17, 2008

Author: aSGuest3377

Source: authorstream.com

Slide 1: Welcome Sherry Roper NSG 913 Qualitative Research Overt or covert That Is the question : Overt or covert That Is the question The answer may be more complicated then you think Introduction : Introduction Research raises ethical questions concerning how the subjects are involved and the impact the research has upon them.  Over time standards have been established to protect subjects. In order to understand the nature of these standards and the impact upon overt and covert qualitative studies we need to take a look back in time. Historical Context : Historical Context PLATO and ARISTOTLE KANT’s imperative Yet, throughout history researchers have violated ethical principles…. Nazi Germany : Nazi Germany The most notable event which first brought ethical research to the forefront occurred in Nazi Germany during WWII Human Experimentation vs. Human Rights : Human Experimentation vs. Human Rights Nuremberg Code of 1948 : Nuremberg Code of 1948 The human rights violations revealed during the war crimes tribunal at Nuremberg in 1948 resulted in the development of 10 standards to abide by when conducting experiments on human subjects Including Informed Consent Do no harm http://www.dreamscape.com/morgana/nurmberg.htm http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/313/7070/1448 Yet unethical research continued……. Tuskegee Syphilis Study : http://www.brown.edu/Courses/Bio_160/Projects2000/Ethics/TUSKEGEESYPHILISSTUDY.html As a result The National Research Act was signed in 1974, creating the Belmont Report: http://www.brown.edu/Courses/Bio_160/Projects2000/Ethics/THEBELMONTREPORT.html Additional regulations were passed including oversight of human research by an agency known as the Institutional Review Board The IRB reviews study protocols and decides whether they are ethical according to ethical standards http://www.brown.edu/Courses/Bio_160/Projects2000/Ethics/THENUREMBURGCODE.html Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ethical Standards & Qualitative Research : Ethical Standards & Qualitative Research Institutional review boards adhere to standards set forth by the Nuremburg Code and the Belmont report (as well as others). The IRB will want to know: The exact nature of the study The IRB generally refuses to approve protocols that involve deception or fail to obtain informed consent. This can be very problematic for the qualitative researcher conducting participant observation. Slide 10: This is due in part to the nature of participant observation and the desire of researchers…. to understand how people interpret and ascribe meaning to the world to learn what life is like for an “insider” while remaining, predictably, an “outsider.” This requires the researcher: : This requires the researcher: To be immersed in the day-to-day activities (covertly or overtly) To interact within the research setting To establish dialogue with community members To maintain detailed notes of the encounters including….. Informal conversation and interaction with members Information and messages communicated through mass media such as radio or television: as well as information gathered at meetings. Slide 12: Such forms of inquiry create unique ethical dilemmas. Covert forms of participant observation create greater ethical dilemmas in comparison to overt observations: : Covert forms of participant observation create greater ethical dilemmas in comparison to overt observations: Deception May be viewed later as betrayal and manipulation May be seen as a violation of personal privacy. A false sense of security may result in individuals revealing sensitive information Personal Engagement Relationships may develop under a “false” pretense. Must consider the psychological impact of power, influence and authority However, both forms of observation must take precautions regarding : However, both forms of observation must take precautions regarding : Informed Consent Confidentiality Anonymity And the Unexpected How should informed consent be handled for participant observation? : How should informed consent be handled for participant observation? Overt Observation Consent may be given in written format, verbally and audio-taped, or videotaped when interacting with community members you should : share what the study is about and your role in it. you should emphasize that the individuals are not required to talk to you and that there will be no repercussions if they do not. Are There Exceptions???? : Are There Exceptions???? Not all research falls “under IRB review, so the issue of what and how much disclosure to make remains a matter of debate, especially where inquire seeks to exposure the inner workings of cults and extremist groups, or those whose power affects other groups” (Patton, pg 271). Covert studies require researchers to determine….. “which concealments are necessary or unavoidable and which represent dangerous or irresponsible moral transgressions” (Lugosi, pg 557) Ongoing Consent May be Necessary : Ongoing Consent May be Necessary Data collection and analysis may take the study in an unexpected direction. The researcher may not know in advance the questions that a participant might be asked or the potential risks that might develop. This must be made clear to the participant at the outset and the consent should be reevaluated throughout the study. Confidentiality : Confidentiality A breach in confidentiality could have serious consequences for a study participant in either covert or overt style studies. Especially if the observations are of a sensitive nature: -gang activity -deviate behavior -drug use -sexual activity Relevant that field notes are kept confidential and that information is not divulged during conversations with community members. Anonymity : Anonymity Demographical information may reveal culture, population or individuals. Report demographics in a very generalized summary Identifying information should be removed The data should be coded and stored in a secure place separate from computer used for data entry Consider if All data should be published? The Unanticipated : The Unanticipated What may be revealed during observations? Abuse to children Spousal abuse Criminal Activity What if : your covert identify is revealed Danger Will the deception be viewed as betrayal Will it cause psychological harm to subjects (especially if sensitive information has been revealed) What is your responsibility to: the subjects your health professionals Overt or Covert that was the question..... : Overt or Covert that was the question..... Slide 22: Regardless of the answer researchers must always make a commitment to protect subjects from harm by asking…… What aspects of this study may put the subjects at risk or in danger? Covert or Overt?Find the Face in the Coffee Beans : Covert or Overt?Find the Face in the Coffee Beans Now You be the Judge : Now You be the Judge Watch the following video and discuss the 3 questions below. Post your discussion in Blackboard. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6GxIuljT3w (to open the hyperlink – right click and scroll to “open hyperlink) 1.  What are some of the ethical issues that should be considered to determine if this study could be regarded as ethical? 2. What alternatives were there to the methodology used by the researcher? 3. Should this study have been done?

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