overexploitation

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Information about overexploitation
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Published on January 13, 2008

Author: Rina

Source: authorstream.com

Overexploitation :  Overexploitation A scrutiny of wildlife trade Conservation of tropical biodiversity:  Conservation of tropical biodiversity Biodiversity: the main challenges A rationale for biodiversity conservation Lessons from island biogeography The value of biodiversity Small and other fragile populations Overexploitation: a scrutiny of wildlife trade Overexploitation:  Overexploitation Wildlife trade: pets for the world Attitudes toward animals in the Neotropics: when positive feelings backfire Fixing the damage Sustainable harvests Designing the ark: In situ vs. Ex situ conservation Population declines: whales:  Population declines: whales Population declines: whales:  Population declines: whales Population declines: whales:  Population declines: whales Atlantic grey whale (Eschrichtius gibbosus gibbosus) went extinct in 1750. Whaling industry: size of taken whale species declined along with the population declines:  Whaling industry: size of taken whale species declined along with the population declines Minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata:  Minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata Overexploitation case study: neotropical macaws:  Overexploitation case study: neotropical macaws Ara macao Overexploitation case study: neotropical macaws:  Overexploitation case study: neotropical macaws Demand for pet market 9 out of 16 macaw species threatened and 1 (nearly) extinct (Cyanopsitta spixii) Nest raiders - destruction of breeding sites Cyanopsitta spixii:  Spix macaw Original distribution: Brasil Extinct in the wild Cyanopsitta spixii Case study: neotropical macaws:  Case study: neotropical macaws Export ban - CITES- Artificial nests and 2nd-chick release Charles Munn, WCS, since 1984 in Peru, 12 macaw species Expansion of protected area Clay lick ecotourism Income for locals (guides, Brasil nuts, gold) Attitudes toward animals in the Neotropics: when positive feelings backfire:  Attitudes toward animals in the Neotropics: when positive feelings backfire Attitudes toward animals in the Neotropics: when positive feelings backfire:  Attitudes toward animals in the Neotropics: when positive feelings backfire The problem: wild animals as victims of pet keepers Determinants of human behavior Studying attitudes and knowledge about animals Costa Rica: a Neotropical case study Perspectives for a misguided affection, empathy and compassion. URBAN HUMANS - NATURE:  URBAN HUMANS - NATURE The national wildlife survey in Costa Rica:  The national wildlife survey in Costa Rica Animals in Costa Rican households:  Animals in Costa Rican households Some animal: 71% (92% domestic, 33% wild) Domestic animal: 66% Wild animal: 23.5% (mostly birds, turtles & fishes) Pet: 68% Pet bird: 23% Aquarium with fishes and/or turtles: 6% COMPARATIVE INCIDENCE OF SOME PETS:  COMPARATIVE INCIDENCE OF SOME PETS Costa Rica: this survey Nicaragua (Zegarra & Drews in prep.) Australia: www.petnet.com.au/statistics.html, 17.3.2000 U.S.A.: Good Housekeeping Consumer Panel Report (1962), Wilbur (1976), AVMA (1997), APPMA (2000) Japan (Kellert 1993) Proportion of households currently with wildlife:  Proportion of households currently with wildlife COSTA RICA 23.5% n=1021 households NICARAGUA 22.3% n=1012 households Drews, C. 2001. Wild animals and other pets kept in Costa Rican households: incidence, species and numbers. Society & Animals 9(2): 107-126. The concerns:  The concerns At least 87% of wild animals are kept illegally. Wild animals are bad pets. Humanitarian concerns (misconception of animal needs). Species conservation concerns (extraction levels). Increasing tendency over time? Humanitarian and conservation concerns:  Humanitarian and conservation concerns 77% kept in enclosure smaller than a large TV set. 75% kept/housed singly. At least 27,000 to 35,000 parrots taken yearly from the wild to satisfy the pet market. About 151,288 parrots currently kept as pets in Costa Rica. In BRASIL: 6,5 million parrots in cages Wildlife as pet during childhood:  Wildlife as pet during childhood Attitudes toward animals in the Neotropics: when positive feelings backfire:  Attitudes toward animals in the Neotropics: when positive feelings backfire The problem: wild animals as inadequate pets Determinants of human behavior Studying attitudes and knowledge about animals Costa Rica: a Neotropical case study Perspectives for a misguided affection, empathy and compassion. Determinants of human behavior:  Practices / Behavior / Decisions Determinants of human behavior Attitudes Knowledge Perceptions Culture / History Logistic & legal constraints … other ...? Evolutionary heritage Determinants of human behavior:  Practices / Behavior / Decisions Determinants of human behavior Attitudes Knowledge Perceptions Culture / History Logistic & legal constraints … other ...? Evolutionary heritage Studying attitudes toward animals:  Studying attitudes toward animals Prof. Stephen Kellert´s attitude typology Survey techniques Battery of questions Groupings are backed up statistically Interpretation generates labels Attitudes scores can be compared Linking attitudes to behavior and values Nationwide studies of attitudes toward animals:  Nationwide studies of attitudes toward animals U.S.A. (Kellert) Germany (Schulz) Japan (Kellert et al.) Botswana (Mordi) Costa Rica (-this study-) Attitudes toward animals in Costa Rica:  Attitudes toward animals in Costa Rica The inquisitive attitude reflects interest in learning about the biology of animals and their habitats. The humanistic attitude is about feelings of affection toward animals. The aesthetic/negativistic attitude emphasizes the role of aesthetic appearance in the preferences for certain animals and acknowledges feelings of aversion, dislike or fear of some animals. Attitudes toward animals in Costa Rica:  Attitudes toward animals in Costa Rica The utilitarian / dominionistic attitude relates to the extractive use of and control over animals. The moralistic attitude is concerned with the ethical treatment of animals and nature. 59.5% disagreed with keeping wild animals as pets. Not an exhaustive listing of Costa Rican attitudes toward wildlife. COSTA RICAN ATTITUDES:  COSTA RICAN ATTITUDES Drews, C. 2002. Attitudes, knowledge and wild animals as pets in Costa Rica. Anthrozoös. 15(2): 119-138. Public opinion on hunting:  Public opinion on hunting ATTITUDE OF PET OWNERS:  ATTITUDE OF PET OWNERS BIOPHILIA “… the innately emotional affiliation of human beings to other living organisms.” Edward O. Wilson (1984, 1993) :  BIOPHILIA “… the innately emotional affiliation of human beings to other living organisms.” Edward O. Wilson (1984, 1993) Reasons for keeping pets:  Reasons for keeping pets Love Ethical commitment Moral obligation Compassion Admiration Family tradition Company Security Therapy Entertainment Aesthetic appeal Educational value to children ... others ... Reasons for keeping wild pets:  Reasons for keeping wild pets Love Ethical commitment Moral obligation 2. Compassion Admiration 3. Family tradition Company Security Therapy Entertainment 1. Aesthetic appeal 3. Educational value to children Reasons for obtaining a wild animal:  Reasons for obtaining a wild animal Aesthetic appeal (I liked the animal) 69% Compassion (I felt sorry for the animal)12% Family tradition 7.5% Good for the children 7.5% “Keeping wild animals at home favors in the children an attitude of respect and love for nature.”:  “Keeping wild animals at home favors in the children an attitude of respect and love for nature.” 64% The setting is entirely anthropomorphic and detaches the animal from its natural requirements and ecological role. The pet legitimizes a capricious taking and using of elements of nature that disregards the implications for the individuals, species and ecosystems. GENERAL KNOWLEDGE OF ANIMALS :  GENERAL KNOWLEDGE OF ANIMALS Spiders have ten legs. Most insects have backbones. A seahorse is a kind of fish. Snakes have a layer of slime to move more easily. All adult birds have feathers. GENERAL KNOWLEDGE OF ANIMALS:  GENERAL KNOWLEDGE OF ANIMALS GENERAL KNOWLEDGE OF ANIMALS:  GENERAL KNOWLEDGE OF ANIMALS “How do you think that the animals living in your home feel?”:  “How do you think that the animals living in your home feel?” VERY PLEASED VERY LONELY WITH MUCH COMPANY SUFFERING MUCH VERY HAPPY VERY SAD Human traits underlying the keeping of wild animals:  Human traits underlying the keeping of wild animals Strong affection for the animals. Good knowledge of biology. Lack of linkage between biological needs and suffering under conditions of captivity. Misguided belief that wild pets foster respect and love for nature in children. Biophilia: a wild animal trap? Attitudes vs. Practices:  Attitudes vs. Practices Right attitudes do not necessarily lead to right practices. Good basic biological knowledge is not sufficient either. An emotional sympathy and misguided empathy for animals compromise their well-being. Attitudes toward animals in the Neotropics: when positive feelings backfire:  Attitudes toward animals in the Neotropics: when positive feelings backfire The problem: wild animals as inadequate pets Determinants of human behavior Studying attitudes and knowledge about animals Costa Rica: a Neotropical case study Perspectives for a misguided affection, empathy and compassion. How do we redirect this biophilia to more wildlife friendly practices? :  How do we redirect this biophilia to more wildlife friendly practices? “Do not change attitudes”:  “Do not change attitudes” Use the pronounced humanistic, inquisitive and moralistic attitudes as working platform. Increase awareness about animal´s needs. Teach natural history and values. Recognition of ethically problematic situations. Trigger moralistic response. Level of agreement with the statement “In my opinion it is o.k. that people keep wildlife at home”:  Level of agreement with the statement “In my opinion it is o.k. that people keep wildlife at home” Chi-square=67.0, df=15, p<0.001 Perceptions of bats:  Perceptions of bats Drews C. 2002. Convivencia con murciélagos en Costa Rica. Ambientico 103: 12-13. http://www.ambientico.una.ac.cr/drewsmurc.htm Perceptions & Education:  Perceptions & Education URBAN HUMANS - NATURE:  URBAN HUMANS - NATURE Desire to have an emotionally and aesthetically gratifying pet:  Desire to have an emotionally and aesthetically gratifying pet Adequate care of a domestic, rather than wild species Sustainable harvest schemes:  Sustainable harvest schemes Sustainable harvest of parrot chicks:  Sustainable harvest of parrot chicks Increasing chick population:  Increasing chick population Caiman crocodilus – a critical look at captive breeding for commercial purposes:  Caiman crocodilus – a critical look at captive breeding for commercial purposes Parks or arks: Ex situ vs. In situ conservation:  Parks or arks: Ex situ vs. In situ conservation Parks or arks: Ex situ vs. In situ conservation:  Parks or arks: Ex situ vs. In situ conservation From: Balmford et al. 1995, 1996 With few exceptions, the population growth rate of threatened mammals is higher in situ than ex situ. Slide58:  Cost of ex situ conservation increases with increasing body size. Costs & body size:  Costs & body size Slide60:  Mammals represent 2/3 of all breeding programs for threatened species, but account for only 14% of all threatened species. Most mammals in ex situ programs are large. Habitat loss vs. Other threats (overexploitation, introduced species or small scale habitat deterioration):  The focus of ex situ programs should be cases of irreversible habitat loss – but it is not. Habitat loss vs. Other threats (overexploitation, introduced species or small scale habitat deterioration) Tackling ex situ challenges:  Tackling ex situ challenges Designing the ark: conclusions:  Designing the ark: conclusions Cost effectiveness of ex situ conservation is higher for small than large sized species. Cases of irreversible habitat loss should have priority in ex situ programs over other threats. Current bias toward large species in ex situ programs is the product of human sensory and affection filters. Does impact on awareness & environmental education compensate for the cost ineffectiveness in reproductive terms?

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