Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies

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Information about Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies

Published on July 12, 2008

Author: PaulVMcDowell

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Reverse Dominance Hierarchies and their concomitants.

How Inequality Evolved: Overcoming Reverse Dominance Hierarchies

The Myth of Forager Egalitarianism Myth: Forager societies lack hierarchy Reality: A few instances of inequality Gender Inequality: highly variable Private property: Pi ňon trees among Paiute Foragers: latent individual inequality Prevention: Watchful control by band and tribe

Myth: Forager societies lack hierarchy

Reality: A few instances of inequality

Gender Inequality: highly variable

Private property: Pi ňon trees among Paiute

Foragers: latent individual inequality

Prevention: Watchful control by band and tribe

By Way of Introduction: Case Study “Eating Christmas in the Kalahari” by Richard Lee Lee conducted an ethnographic study of the Dobe !Kung during year He gave the band a fattened ox to thank them Reaction: Dobe ridiculed this gift Lesson: the !Kung typically ridicule all unusually valuable game

“Eating Christmas in the Kalahari” by Richard Lee

Lee conducted an ethnographic study of the Dobe !Kung during year

He gave the band a fattened ox to thank them

Reaction: Dobe ridiculed this gift

Lesson: the !Kung typically ridicule all unusually valuable game

!Kung San Hunter

Why This Bizarre Behavior? Tomazo’s answer: “Arrogance.” “ When a young man kills much meat, he thinks himself as a chief or big man and the rest of us as his servants. We cannot accept this. Someday his pride will make him kill somebody. So we always speak of his meat as worthless. That way, we cool his heart and make him gentle.”

Tomazo’s answer: “Arrogance.”

“ When a young man kills much meat,

he thinks himself as a chief or big man

and the rest of us as his servants.

We cannot accept this.

Someday his pride will make him kill somebody.

So we always speak of his meat as worthless.

That way, we cool his heart and make him gentle.”

Lessons from This Tale Even bandsmen know about inequality They fear domination by one man Unusual gifts always involve some ulterior motive So they denigrate this gifts The reaction conforms to a model of reverse dominance hierarchy

Even bandsmen know about inequality

They fear domination by one man

Unusual gifts always involve some ulterior motive

So they denigrate this gifts

The reaction conforms to a model of reverse dominance hierarchy

Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: A Definition Primary Source: Boehm’s Hierarchy in the Forest Definition: a collective reaction to anyone’s attempt to dominate his fellows Summary: “All men seek to rule but if they cannot rule they seek to be equal.” — Harold Schneider, Economic Anthropologist

Primary Source: Boehm’s Hierarchy in the Forest

Definition: a collective reaction to

anyone’s attempt to dominate his fellows

Summary: “All men seek to rule

but if they cannot rule

they seek to be equal.”

— Harold Schneider, Economic Anthropologist

Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Toward a Model Primary Source: Knauft: “Sociality versus Self-Interest in Human Evolution” Behavior and Brain Sciences. Knauft postulates a U-Shaped Curve: Nonhuman Primates: Moderate to Extreme Dominance Bands and Tribes: Strong Egalitarianism Chiefdoms and States: Ranking to Social Stratification

Primary Source: Knauft: “Sociality versus Self-Interest in Human Evolution” Behavior and Brain Sciences.

Knauft postulates a U-Shaped Curve:

Nonhuman Primates: Moderate to Extreme Dominance

Bands and Tribes: Strong Egalitarianism

Chiefdoms and States: Ranking to Social Stratification

Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Primate Ethological Evidence Rationale: Pongid-Hominid Divergence 6 m.y.a. Dominance Evident in Hominoids Chimpanzees: Coalition Politics Bonobos: Female Hierarchies Passed to Sons Male Linear Dominance is tempered by : Behavioral Ambivalence (waa vocalization) Coalitions of Subordinate Individuals

Rationale: Pongid-Hominid Divergence 6 m.y.a.

Dominance Evident in Hominoids

Chimpanzees: Coalition Politics

Bonobos: Female Hierarchies Passed to Sons

Male Linear Dominance is tempered by :

Behavioral Ambivalence (waa vocalization)

Coalitions of Subordinate Individuals

Establishing Dominance Hierarchies: Threat Behavior

Reverse Dominant Hierarchy: Band/Tribal Egalitarianism Most Models: Effortless Egalitarianism Reverse Dominance: You Have to Work at It “ Upstart” Individuals Try to Dominate the Band/Tribe Coalitions Suppress Every Such Attempt Ridicule (!Kung “Insulting the Meat”) Song Duels (Inuit/Eskimo) Extreme Case: Homicide by Group-Selected Executioner

Most Models: Effortless Egalitarianism

Reverse Dominance: You Have to Work at It

“ Upstart” Individuals Try to Dominate the Band/Tribe

Coalitions Suppress Every Such Attempt

Ridicule (!Kung “Insulting the Meat”)

Song Duels (Inuit/Eskimo)

Extreme Case: Homicide by Group-Selected Executioner

Ending Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Food Surplus Bases of Food Surplus Complex Foraging: Northwest Coast Indians Advanced Pastoralists: Mongol Nomads Neolithic Revolution Intensive Cultivation Nonfarm Specialization in Crafts and Manufactures Administration and Enforcement Rise of an Elite

Bases of Food Surplus

Complex Foraging: Northwest Coast Indians

Advanced Pastoralists: Mongol Nomads

Neolithic Revolution

Intensive Cultivation

Nonfarm Specialization in

Crafts and Manufactures

Administration and Enforcement

Rise of an Elite

Ending Dominance Hierarchies: War As resources dwindle And populations increases Warfare expands in scope And establish hierarchical societies And their states

As resources dwindle

And populations increases

Warfare expands in scope

And establish hierarchical societies

And their states

Ending Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Population Density Populations increase Beyond scope of kin-based control New control mechanism come into place Extra-Familial groups take control Anti-hierarchical mechanisms lose effectiveness Circumscription ensures control.

Populations increase

Beyond scope of kin-based control

New control mechanism come into place

Extra-Familial groups take control

Anti-hierarchical mechanisms lose effectiveness

Circumscription ensures control.

Emergence of Stratification Manipulative Individuals/Families Form alliances (chimpanzee-like) Play one faction against another Form dynasties (bonobo-like) Control over Life-Sustaining Resources Water systems in semi-arid regions Agricultural lands Mechanisms of Taxation Labor Tribute

Manipulative Individuals/Families

Form alliances (chimpanzee-like)

Play one faction against another

Form dynasties (bonobo-like)

Control over Life-Sustaining Resources

Water systems in semi-arid regions

Agricultural lands

Mechanisms of Taxation

Labor

Tribute

Contemporary Reverse Dominance Hierarchies Contemporary Examples Labor Unions: Danger of a Labor Aristocracy? Socialism: But who controls the bosses? Recuperaci ó n Movement in Argentina: But what will prevent corruption?

Contemporary Examples

Labor Unions: Danger of a Labor Aristocracy?

Socialism: But who controls the bosses?

Recuperaci ó n Movement in Argentina: But what will prevent corruption?

Industrial Reverse Dominance Hierarchies: Requirements Large-Scale Control Mechanisms Anti-Corruption Mechanisms Institutions Independent of Personalistic Qualities (Cult of Personality) Policies for the Greatest Happiness For All Assurance of Human and Civil Rights for all.

Large-Scale Control Mechanisms

Anti-Corruption Mechanisms

Institutions Independent of Personalistic Qualities (Cult of Personality)

Policies for the Greatest Happiness For All

Assurance of Human and Civil Rights for all.

Equality to Inequality: Montenegro Montenegrins maintained tribal structure Uniting only to repel Ottoman forays Structure assured equality A marriage alliance sealed dominance by one tribe over the others

Montenegrins maintained tribal structure

Uniting only to repel Ottoman forays

Structure assured equality

A marriage alliance sealed dominance by one tribe over the others

From Forager to Domesticator: The Archaeological Record Sufficient Condition: Food Surplus Complex Foraging Enabled Settled Communities Plant and Animal Domestication Forced by Population Excess of Carrying Capacity Tribal Society Still Egalitarian Based on Reverse Dominance Example: Big Man Model of New Guinea

Sufficient Condition: Food Surplus

Complex Foraging Enabled Settled Communities

Plant and Animal Domestication Forced by Population Excess of Carrying Capacity

Tribal Society Still Egalitarian

Based on Reverse Dominance

Example: Big Man Model of New Guinea

Emergence of Complexity Projects emerged requiring extra-familial cooperation, such as a state Example: Dams, canals, other waterworks Example: Defensive walls when at war Example: Exploitation of mines or quarries Other projects might justify maintenance of new formation

Projects emerged requiring extra-familial cooperation, such as a state

Example: Dams, canals, other waterworks

Example: Defensive walls when at war

Example: Exploitation of mines or quarries

Other projects might justify maintenance of new formation

Establishment of Power over Resources Control over Life-Sustaining Resources Example: Water works in arid regions Example: Granaries Example: Trade in essential goods Emergence of Hereditary Chiefs/Chiefdoms Formation of chief and subchief hierarchy Expansion of territory

Control over Life-Sustaining Resources

Example: Water works in arid regions

Example: Granaries

Example: Trade in essential goods

Emergence of Hereditary Chiefs/Chiefdoms

Formation of chief and subchief hierarchy

Expansion of territory

Institutionalized Social Stratification Control of Food Surpluses and Food Sources Large, Dense Populations Formal Government Monopoly over Legal Force Bureaucracy Codified Law Division of Labor and Trade Record Keeping Monumental Architecture

Control of Food Surpluses and Food Sources

Large, Dense Populations

Formal Government

Monopoly over Legal Force

Bureaucracy

Codified Law

Division of Labor and Trade

Record Keeping

Monumental Architecture

Zinacantan: From Community to Local Stratification A Closed Corporate Community Cargo System Communal Resource and Surplus Control’ Other Attributes of Community Solidarity An Entrepreneurial Revolution Decline of the Cargo System Global Influences on Community Fragmentation into hamlets

A Closed Corporate Community

Cargo System

Communal Resource and Surplus Control’

Other Attributes of Community Solidarity

An Entrepreneurial Revolution

Decline of the Cargo System

Global Influences on Community

Fragmentation into hamlets

Can Egalitarian Society Coexist with Complexity? Catalh öyük: A large egalitarian town? The Inca: First socialist model? Contemporary South America: glimmerings of equal complex societies?

Catalh öyük: A large egalitarian town?

The Inca: First socialist model?

Contemporary South America: glimmerings of equal complex societies?

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