output devices By ZAK

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Information about output devices By ZAK

Published on September 29, 2015

Author: 34GL3

Source: slideshare.net

1. Page 1 of 14 1.3 Hardware and software 1.3.4 Output devices An output device is any device used to send data from a computer to another device or user. Most computer data output that is meant for humans is in the form of audio or video. Thus, most output devices used by humans are in these categories. Examples include monitors, projectors, speakers, headphones and printers. Many different output devices are available to use with a computer system. Here are descriptions of the most common output devices. MONITORS Almost all computers have a monitor. Monitors are also known as Visual Display Units (VDUs). Most computers use this display as the main output device. There are two different types of display: Desktop Monitors: this work in much the same way as a television set. They are bulky but fairly cheap to buy. E.g. £150 for a 14" screen. Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs): These displays are completely flat and so can be used in portable computers and other small devices such as calculators. They are more expensive to make than desktop monitors. Currently only the most expensive ones (cost over £2000) are as high quality as desktop monitors. In ten years’ time LCDs will probably replace bulky desktop monitors. The three most important features of a screen are its size, the colours it can display and its resolution. There is more information about these features below. They apply to both desktop monitors and LCDs. Size: How big is the screen? Typical sizes are 10" or 12" for LCDs and 14", 15" or 21" for desktop monitors. The size is measured along the diagonal from the bottom left hand corner to the top right hand corner of the screen. Color: Is the monitor color or black & white? Most new desktop computers have colour screens as they are no longer that much more expensive than black & white ones and modern computer applications work better with a colour monitor. Resolution: An image displayed on the screen is made up of lots of dots called pixels. If you look closely at the screen you may be able to see these pixels. The resolution of the screen is how many pixels there are up and down and from left to right across the screen. A variety of different resolutions are available. For PCs these resolutions have names. E.g. VGA is 640 x 480. This means that there are 640 pixels in each row across the screen and 480 pixels in each column up and down the screen.

2. Page 2 of 14 1.3 Hardware and software 1.3.4 Output devices SVGA is usually 800 x 600. Displays with lots of pixels are called high resolution. Displays with fewer pixels are called low resolution. High resolution displays can show much more detail than low resolution ones and are required for applications such as Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Multimedia. Here are close-up pictures of a circle, one shown on a high resolution display and one on a low resolution display: Images displayed on the screen are temporary, i.e. they do not last forever. That’s why they are called Soft copy. LEDS: The flat-panel display refers to a class of video devices that have reduced volume, weight and power requirement compared to the CRT. You can hang them on walls or wear them on your wrists. Current uses for flat-panel displays include calculators, video games, monitors, laptop computer, graphics display. The flat-panel display is divided into two categories: Emissive Displays - The emissive displays are devices that convert electrical energy into light. Examples are plasma panel and LED (Light-Emitting Diodes). Non-Emissive Displays - The Non-emissive displays use optical effects to convert sunlight or light from some other source into graphics patterns. Example is LCD (Liquid-Crystal Device)

3. Page 3 of 14 1.3 Hardware and software 1.3.4 Output devices Printers: Printers are the most important output device; they are used to print information on paper. The 2 types of printers are: 1. Impact Printers 2. Non-Impact Printers Impact Printers: The printers that print the characters by striking against the ribbon and onto the paper, are called impact printers. Characteristics of Impact Printers are the following: Very low consumable costs Impact printers are very noisy Useful for bulk printing due to low cost There is physical contact with the paper to produce an image These printers are of two types: 1. Character printers 2. Line printers Character Printers: Character Printers are printers, which print one character at a time. These are further classified into 2 types: 1. Dot Matrix Printer (DMP) 2. Daisy Wheel Dot Matrix Printer In the market, one of the most popular printers is Dot Matrix Printer because of their ease of printing features and economical price. Each character printed is in form of pattern of Dot's and head consists of a Matrix of Pins of size (5*7, 7*9, 9*7 or 9*9) which comes out to form a character that is why it is called Dot Matrix Printer.

4. Page 4 of 14 1.3 Hardware and software 1.3.4 Output devices Advantages Inexpensive Widely Used Other language characters can be printed Disadvantages Slow Speed Poor Quality Daisy Wheel Head is lying on a wheel and Pins corresponding to characters are like petals of Daisy (flower name) that is why it is called Daisy Wheel Printer. These printers are generally used for word-processing in offices which require a few letters to be sent here and there with very nice quality representation. Advantages More reliable than DMP's Better quality The fonts of character can be easily changed. Disadvantages

5. Page 5 of 14 1.3 Hardware and software 1.3.4 Output devices Slower than DMP's Noisy More expensive than DMP's

6. Page 6 of 14 1.3 Hardware and software 1.3.4 Output devices Line Printers Line printers are printers, which print one line at a time. These are of further two types: 1. Drum Printer 2. Chain Printer Drum Printer This printer is like a drum in shape so it called drum printer. The surface of drum is divided into number of tracks. Total tracks are equal to size of paper, i.e., for a paper width of 132 characters, Drum will have 132 tracks. A character set is embossed on track. The different character sets available in market are 48 character set, 64 and 96 characters set. One rotation of drum prints one line. Drum Printers are fast in speed and prints between 300 to 2000 lines per minute. Advantages Very high speed Disadvantages Very expensive Characters fonts cannot be changed

7. Page 7 of 14 1.3 Hardware and software 1.3.4 Output devices Chain Printer In this printer, a chain of character sets are used hence it is called Chain Printers. A standard character set may have 48, 64, 96 characters. Advantages Character fonts can easily be changed. Different languages can be used with the same printer. Disadvantages Noisy. Do not have the ability to print any shape of characters. Non-impact Printers The printers that print the characters without striking against the ribbon and onto the paper are called Non- impact Printers. These printers print a complete page at a time, also called as Page Printers. These printers are of two types: 1. Laser Printers 2. Inkjet Printers Characteristics of Non-impact Printers: Faster than impact printers. They are not noisy. High quality. Support many fonts and different character size.

8. Page 8 of 14 1.3 Hardware and software 1.3.4 Output devices Laser Printers These are non-impact page printers. They use laser lights to produce the dots needed to form the characters to be printed on a page. Advantages Very high speed. Very high quality output. Gives good graphics quality. Supports many fonts and different character sizes. Disadvantage Expensive. Cannot be used to produce multiple copies of a document in a single printing. Inkjet Printers Inkjet printers are non-impact character printers based on a relatively new technology. They print characters by spraying small drops of ink onto paper. Inkjet printers produce high quality output with presentable features. They make less noise because no hammering is done and these have many styles of printing modes available. Colour printing is also possible. Some models of Inkjet printers can produce multiple copies of printing also.

9. Page 9 of 14 1.3 Hardware and software 1.3.4 Output devices Advantages High quality printing More reliable Disadvantages Expensive as cost per page is high Slow as compared to laser printer 3D PRINTERS: Over thousands of years, dripping water creates layers and layers of mineral deposits, which accumulate to form stalagmites and stalactites. Unlike these natural formations, though, 3-D printing is much faster and follows a predetermined plan provided by computer software. The computer directs the 3-D printer to add each new layer as a precise cross-section of the final object. Additive manufacturing and 3-D printing specifically, continues to grow. Technology that started out as a way to build fast prototypes is now a means of creating products for the medical, dental, aerospace and automotive industries. 3-D printing is also crossing over into toy and furniture manufacturing, art and fashion. 2D Cutters Successful fabricators find that in almost all sheet metal applications, laser cutting offers unparalleled quality at high production speeds. Lasers provide high precision cutting with minimal heat distortion of the metal. They easily process different materials of varying thicknesses, with a minimum of costly set up or downtime. A single laser can cut different part designs, of differing sheet thicknesses, without ever changing the machine setup. Superior edge quality, free from burrs and narrow kerfs are standard. 3D Cutters A three-dimensional (3D) laser cut is like a regular laser cut, except the laser is able to recognize all sides of a substrate and not just the substrate’s face. Unlike two-dimensional (2D) laser cutting, a 3D laser cut normally is able to work with a cube or other large substrate shape and not just a flat piece of material. The substrate itself can be many different types of materials, such as glass, crystal, metal and wood. Other cutting methods can only cut into the material’s surface, but the laser can be set to cut the inside of the material, which most commonly is used with crystal. One aspect of a 3D laser cut is that the cutting machine is able to recognize all sides of the substrate. With a 2D laser cutter, the machine is only able to cut into and recognize the face of the material. The 3D method allows the cutter to go through and specifically cut and shape the substrate as needed by the uploaded design, which allows the machine to make much more complex shapes and projects. Two-dimensional laser cutters normally can only cut into a flat piece of material, but a 3D laser cut can be made into a thick piece of material such as a cube or sphere. Much like the ability to recognize all sides of the

10. Page 10 of 14 1.3 Hardware and software 1.3.4 Output devices substrate, this enables the machine to make much more complex cuts when compared to a 2D machine. At the same time, there are some cheaper 3D laser cutters that lack this ability. Many different materials can be used with a 3D laser cut machine, and each material has a different purpose. Wood can be formed into pieces for furniture or decorative elements, glass and crystal can be formed into shapes, and metal can be formed into parts or printed circuit boards (PCBs). This normally can be done by 2D laser cutters, too, because lasers tend to be versatile cutters. A unique aspect of a 3D laser cut is the ability to go beyond the substrate’s surface. This enables the cutter to cut beneath the surface without leaving any scratches on the material’s surface. This usually is made in crystal and glass, and a 3D image is engraved in the center of the material. Wood also can be used for this; it sometimes is done and then the wood is split open to reveal the internal design, but this is not as common as crystal. SPEAKERS AND HEADPHONES A speaker is essentially the final translation machine -- the reverse of the microphone. It takes the electrical signal and translates it back into physical vibrations to create sound waves. When everything is working as it should, the speaker produces nearly the same vibrations that the microphone originally recorded and encoded on a tape, CD, LP, etc. Traditional speakers do this with one or more drivers. Headphones (which are often called "cans" by DJs and people who work in radio broadcasting) work in exactly the same way as speakers, so you might want to consult our article on loudspeakers if you're not sure how they use magnetism to turn electrical energy into sound. The biggest difference between loudspeakers and headphones is, of course, size. A loudspeaker needs to set all the air moving in a room so you can hear the sound it's making, but the speaker in a headphone only has to move the volume of air inside your ear canal. That's why it can be so much smaller and more discreet. Large headphones are essentially just two loudspeakers mounted on a strap that clamps firmly over your head. Ear buds work the same way but, as you would expect, everything inside them (the magnet, the coil of wire, and the diaphragm cone that makes sound) is shrunk down to a much smaller size. Speakers tend to be built into "enclosures" to amplify their sounds and keep them safe from damage. Speaker enclosures usually have openings at the front or the back so air can move more freely in and out of them to generate decent sound. The same is true of headphones and ear buds, which come in two main types. As their name suggests, closed-back headphones are sealed at the back so (theoretically) no sound escapes (or leaks in from outside) while open-back headphones are open to the air at the back as well as the front. Many people find that open-back headphones sound better but much of the noise will leak into the room around you and annoy other people, while "ambient" noise from the room can easily penetrate open-back headphones and annoy you too. If that's a problem, you need closed-back headphones or noise-cancelling headphones, which make it easy to cut yourself off completely.

11. Page 11 of 14 1.3 Hardware and software 1.3.4 Output devices LCD PROJECTORS: The technology behind the LCD projector is nearly three decades old in 2012, but it remains one of the top digital projection technologies, alongside Digital Light Processing (DLP) projectors. Inventor Gene Dolgoff developed the first LCD projector in 1984, and both Epson and Sony continue to employ the technology in 21st century projectors. The old method of film projection was simple: Each frame of the film was a tiny, translucent photograph. Shine light through the film and then have that light pass through an imaging lens and you'd display a larger version of that tiny image onto a wall or screen. LCD projectors work a little differently. A beam of high-intensity light travels through thousands of shifting pixels in an LCD display instead of through a frame of translucent film. And these projectors don't just use a single LCD display either -- they use three, which is why they're also called 3LCD projectors. The light splits into three hues, and then travels through three LCDs before recombining in a prism to generate the crisp, colorful image projected on the screen. DIGITAL LIGHT PROJECTORS: At the heart of every DLP projection system is an optical semiconductor known as the DLP chip, which was invented by Dr. Larry Hornbeck of Texas Instruments in 1987. The DLP chip is perhaps the world's most sophisticated light switch. It contains a rectangular array of up to 8 million hinge-mounted microscopic mirrors; each of these micro mirrors measures less than one-fifth the width of a human hair. When a DLP chip is coordinated with a digital video or graphic signal, a light source, and a projection lens, its mirrors can reflect a digital image onto any surface.

12. Page 12 of 14 1.3 Hardware and software 1.3.4 Output devices OUTPUT DEVICES IN REALLIFE SCENARIOS: PRINTING IN LARGE VOLUMES: Printing is not only done in offices or when you need to submit a report of a project to your teacher. There are scenarios where printing is to be done at large scales and one soft copy, a printer and some pages will create a large volume of the same soft copy. Here are certain scenarios where you may need to print in large volumes: Brochures Notepads - Custom Notepads and Personalized Notepads Flyers Postcards Business Cards Post-It® Notes Catalogs Door Hangers Sell Sheets Bookmarks Letterhead Stickers Posters Forms Booklets RIP cards Direct Mail Lots More DIGITAL DISPLAYS The integrated anti-reflection/anti-glare shield makes it perfect for digital signage and information display applications in high-traffic public areas. The overlay provides extra protection from the elements and helps prevent scratches, fingerprints and dust. Visual retail is the next big step in the evolution of digital signage. Remotely managed, interactive, intelligent video displays deliver advertising, information, and visually engaging experiences that are informative, immersive, and fun.

13. Page 13 of 14 1.3 Hardware and software 1.3.4 Output devices SMALL SCREENS ON MOBILE DEVICES Mobile devices are all around us. With many countries now reporting over 100% handset penetration by population, mobile phones are now nothing if not ubiquitous. Following in their footsteps are tablet devices, which driven by the success of Apple’s iPad and Amazon’s Kindle are becoming a more and more common sight. Beyond new hardware, users are being offered a wider selection of competing operating systems and user interfaces. The release of iOS5 and “Mango” for Windows Phone 7 are two high-profile examples of the battle being fought to be the one device we carry with us. The integration of software, applications, and personalized content is part of an evolution in the small screen experience. Large organizations such as Amazon are even testing tablet-optimized redesigns of their websites. SMART BOARDS While the traditional white board already has everyone’s attention, the electronic device is a new technology that is slowly gaining popularity due to its interactive power. The digital screen allows images from the computer to be displayed on a board. It can also be modified on the screen itself, using a pen or a highlighting tool. Its touch screen feature allows teachers to run programs directly from the screen simply by tapping the application with her finger and even makes scrolling easy. Smart Boards are becoming an essential component of every classroom. Some reasons for this trend is that: It can accommodate different learning styles. Tactical learners can use the screen and learn by touching and marking at the board, audio learners can have a discussion and visual learners can observe the teaching on the board. It is neater and does not have the cleanliness hassle and is therefore easier to maintain. Most teachers understand the “why” but struggle with the “how”. Here are some ideas on how you can use Smart Boards. Use it as a tool for note-taking. Students can come and write important points on the board. Alternately, you can appoint a student to type out notes on the computer while you talk, so that the other students can view and take them down. Brainstorming in the classroom can be fun with a Smart Board. You can not only put together text/ ideas but also images, diagrams or videos. Classroom games can be played with ease on the board. Board games in particular can be played on the board itself. All forms of media– videos, photographs, graphs, maps, illustrations, games, etc. – can be used on the board, making it incredibly dynamic in nature. This expands the range of content that you can use for teaching or presenting new information. A lot of new software is available for free on the internet that can be easily integrated. There are many forums and websites that aim to help teachers by providing Smart Board ideas and activities. Explore these for more ideas. The Smart Board is tomorrow’s technology and is bound to change the look of classrooms forever. Using smart boards in your classroom can help you stay ahead with technology that could make the education process simpler and perhaps even more productive.

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