Published on March 10, 2014
How? Why? To Outline. OUTLINING OUTLINING (NO REDUNDANCY)
WHY CREATE AN OUTLINE: AUDIENCE ^For whom are you writing (AUDIENCE) *Academia (Experts in the field of study already) *Educators (Intelligent people who seek to educate others) *Business Types (clients/sales reps—need to know for personal economic benefit) *General Public (parents, residents of a community, general consumers)
AUDIENCE CONT‟D: VISUAL FROM DIANA HACKER (RULES FOR WRITERS)
PURPOSE (WHY SHOULD YOUR AUDIENCE CARE?) • TO INFORM • TO PERSUADE • TO ENTERTAIN • TO CALL ______ TO ACTION • TO CHANGE ATTITUDES • TO ANALYZE • TO ARGUE • TO EVALUATE • TO RECOMMEND • TO REQUEST • TO PROPOSE • TO PROVOKE (THOUGHT) • TO EXPRESS FEELINGS • TO SUMMARIZE • TO CAPTURE
PURPOSE: THE “OLD” AND THE “NEW” • HOW IMPORTANT IS THE RESEARCH YOU‟VE ALREADY DISCOVERED TO YOUR AUDIENCE? • ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY • LITERATURE REVIEW • BACKGROUND/TERMINOLOGY/QUALIFIER • HOW IMPORTANT IS THE “NEW” RESEARCH (ORIGINAL RESEARCH, FIELD WORK) TO YOUR PAPER? • SURVEYS (CURRENT OPINIONS, BIASES, TRENDS, PRACTICES) • INTERVIEWS (EXPERT, „MAN ON THE STREET‟) • EXPERIMENTS (SCIENTIFIC METHOD, DESIGN THINKING, ETC); FOCUS GROUPS • CRITICAL ARGUMENT • DRAWING CONCLUSIONS • OFFERING SOLUTIONS
HOW TO OUTLINE: SOME MODELS
LONGITUDINAL MODEL: BADKE
EXAMPLE: WHICH MODEL IS IT?
A FEW TIPS FOR DETERMINING ORDER IN OUTLINES • Look for a „natural order‟ to establish itself • “Burnout in the workplace” example from Badke • Ascending / Climactic Order = Rule of Thumb • Various viewpoints are valid—do not misrepresent • Reservation / Rebuttal • Point/Counterpoint • Objectivity/Subjectivity
RESEARCH INTRODUCTIONS: WHAT‟S THY PURPOSE • “Keep your introduction lean if not mean” (Badke 140). • Hooks: real-world examples/problems/issues to engage • Attention, Interest, Good Will • Research Intros serve two, and only two, real purposes: • 1) establish working knowledge of the topic • 2) state your single research question
IS THAT A BULGE IN YOUR PAPER, OR DO YOU JUST LOVE TO GO ON TANGENTS? • Bulge ( noun): “ a section of information that has little relationship to the paper topic at hand” (Badke 141). • We did the digging, so it must make the final cut…right? • It‟s just too interesting to leave out…right? • At times like this, remember TRIAGE APPLIES TO PAPERS, TOO!
SO, IN SUMMATION… • Outlines are essential to organizing piles of information before you write. • Know thy foci! • A) For whom are you writing • B) For why are you writing • Less is more: simple divisions are preferable to “algorithmic” models • Have an approach in mind: topical, chronological, climactic • Be fair: even if you don‟t endorse the research you‟re reviewing or including, objectively offering it behooves you early and later • Avoid tangents (even if they are “really cool”)
BIBLIOGRAPHY Badke, William. Research Strategies: Finding Your Way through the Information Fog. 2nd Edition. iUniverse: New York, 2004. Hacker, Diana and Sommers, Nancy. Rules for Writers. 7th Edition. Bedford/St. Martin‟s: New York, 2012.
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