Published on February 14, 2008
Genghis Khan and His Empire: Genghis Khan and His Empire Who was Genghis Khan? Genghis Khan and war Were the terrors he created most gruesome as were perceived? Genghis Khan and the nature/Nurture dichotomy Genghis Khan: Genghis Khan Like the empire he built, Genghis Khan’s life remains in many ways a mystery and myth. Despite this, we know this man much better than he was known in previous centuries But what kind of man was he? Does what is recorded in Muslims’ Chroniclers represent/characterize him correctly? “The great joy a man can know is to conquer his enemies and drive them before him. To ride their horses and take away their possessions. To see the faces of those who were dear to them bedewed with tears, and to clasp their wives and daughters in his arms.” The Mongolian Empire: The Mongolian Empire The largest empire in the world history A Warrior Leader: A Warrior Leader Waged war with a strategic purpose in mind: to preserve Mongol life Never willingly sacrifice a single one of his soldiers Every soldiers is taught to live his life as warrior who is always a winner and will not die easily on battlefield Show little concern for the loss of enemy life, but The Mongol warriors killed enemy soldiers and bureaucrats They did not torture, mutilate, or maim their enemy soldiers like others did Mongol soldiers tortured : Mongol soldiers tortured In 1228, Jalal al-Din, the son of the Kwarizm sultan, captured four hundred Mongol soldiers, tied them behind horses, and dragged them through the streets of the city to entertain the city’s residents Persian victors killed the Mongol captives by driving nails into their heads In 1035, sultan of Delhi had elephants crush their Mogol captives, then built a tower from the severed heads of the Mongols War with Golden Khan: War with Golden Khan What the Mongols did not do: What the Mongols did not do They did not inspire fear or terror by the ferocity or cruelty of their acts War with Khwarizm: War with Khwarizm It took four years (1219-1223) It was a war in which Genghis Khan’s 150,000 to 200,000 horsemen fought against Khwarizm’s 400,000 men Genghis Khan attacked not just Khawarizm, but an entire ancient civilization The Muslim lands of the thirteenth century, combing Arabic, Turkic, and Persian civilizations The richest countries in the world and the most sophisticated in virtually every branch of learning from astronomy and mathematics to agronomy Khubilai Khan: Khubilai Khan Genghis Khan’s grandson who ruled entire China and established the Yuan Dynasty in 1279 AD first conquered north China under the Jurchen, Then conquered south China under the Southern Song/Sung, The conquest of China (Southern Song/Sung) began in 1268 and took 11 years to complete, highlighted by The battle of Xiangyang, which took 5 years (1268-1273) The battle of Yangzhou, 1 year (1275) The seize of Hangzhou, the capital city Song loyalists continued to fight against the Mongols army in the far south until the last emperor perished at sea and the last general lost his life Khubilai Khan was able to institute Mongolian rule effectively, as evidenced by few major insurrections occurring during his reign
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