Published on March 4, 2014
Ottoman Empire, Qing Empire, and Japan Era of Changes 1750 to 1900
Ottoman Empire & Qing Empire – the turbulent 19th century
Ottoman Expansion 1300 - 1600
Nationalist revolutions & European advances led to the Ottoman Empire losing territory EX. Independence in the Balkans Semi-Independence in North Africa Later British influence in Egypt
The Decline of Ottoman Rule
The Empire became known as "the sick man of Europe” by Europeans.
The Sultanate has to be destroyed. Religion and State have to be separated from one another. We have to turn away from the eastern civilizations and turn to the western ones. We have to do away with the distinctions between men and women and thereby found new social rules. We have to find an alphabet based upon the Latin script, and we have to focus ourselves towards the West in every respect, even as far as our clothes are concerned." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
MANCHU CHINA – the QING DYNASTY (the last dynasty of China)
Qing China produced more goods and held onto a favorable trade balance into the late 1700s.
THE OPIUM WARS
Chinese Rulers sing-along -to the tune of “Frere Jacques”? Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han Sui, Tang, Song Sui, Tang, Song Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic Then comes Revolution Mao Zedong, Mao Zedong
Empires that didn’t strike back! Qing Dynasty of China (1644 – 1911) The end of a 4000 years of dynastic cycles. Ottoman Empire (1300 – 1918) 600 year old powerhouse fell.
Empires that didn’t strike back! CHANGES • Economy weakened • Political Rebellions • European pressure / takeover • Social Class changes
CAUSES In both Qing China & the Ottoman Empire: • the government resisted economic change & attempted to maintain preindustrial forms of economic production • the leadership underestimated the growing power of the European nations
A Brief Look at Japan in the 1800s to 1900s
Do you remember? Under the Tokugawa Emperor, the Japanese shoguns had chosen a policy of isolationism in the early 1600s. Foreigners were prohibited to enter Japan and the Japanese were “prohibited” from leaving.
Outside powers threatened Japan After the defeat of the Chinese by the British (1780s) & a growing presence of European and U.S. warships (1850s) Japanese leaders “decided” to sign trade treaties and open Japan to outsiders.
Japan was now open to outside influences.
Tokugawa rulers lose. . . The threat from outsiders and a desire for change unified many Japanese leaders against the Tokugawa rulers. Provincial leaders joined together & overthrew the Tokugawa rulers, and began the Meiji period.
Japan transformed itself into a major industrial and military power 1860s - 1900s
The Meiji Government The emperor was the “figurehead” of the government while power was held by landowners and businessmen in congress & in the military (oligarchy).
Meiji Japan adapts Western ideas Japanese were sent on study tours of Europe. Europeans & Americans were hired to help transform Japan. In Japan a new education system was set up
Meiji Japan transforms itself Government built a modern army & navy
FROM THIS . . .
JAPAN transformed Rapid industrialization took place (with a mix of government & private ownership). Railroads were built and urban areas became more “modern”
Japanese Imperialism Japan gained control of Korea. Japan defeated China to take control of Taiwan (1894) Japan defeated Russia to take control of Manchuria (1905).
Japanese Imperialism 1860-1914
JAPAN TRANSFORMED~ CHANGES• New dynasty – Meiji Period began • From a Closed economy to Industrial Power • From Traditional to Modern – Culture, Economy, Military • Isolated nation-state to Imperial Power
CAUSES • Outside pressure • Japanese leadership decided to change – use the West as a model
Which of the following statements best describes the main message of this cartoon? A. Russia was bigger than Japan B. Japan defeated Russia in a struggle for control of parts of East Asia C. In WWI, Japan’s military was better than the Russian military D. France supported Japan in its battles against Russia over territory in Manchuria
1.Ottoman Empire, Qing Empire, and JapanEra of Changes 1750 to 1900. 2. Ottoman Empire & Qing Empire –the turbulent 19th century. 3. Ottoman Expansion ...