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Information about OSTP Lewis
Science-Technology

Published on January 21, 2008

Author: Donato

Source: authorstream.com

Solar Energy and Nanotechnology:  Nathan S. Lewis George L. Argyros Professor of Chemistry California Institute of Technology with George Crabtree, Argonne NL Arthur Nozik, NREL Mike Wasielewski, Northwestern Paul Alivisatos, UC-Berkeley Solar Energy and Nanotechnology Based on: Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization: Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization Solar Energy Utilization:  Solar Energy Utilization .001 TW PV $0.30/kWh w/o storage natural photosynthesis 50 - 200 °C space, water heating 500 - 3000 °C heat engines electricity generation process heat 1.5 TW electricity $0.03-$0.06/kWh (fossil) 1.4 TW solar fuel (biomass) 0.002 TW 11 TW fossil fuel (present use) 2 TW space and water heating Slide3:  Solar Energy Costs Cost $/m2 $0.10/Wp $0.20/Wp $0.50/Wp Efficiency % 20 40 60 80 100 100 200 300 400 500 $1.00/Wp $3.50/Wp module cost only double for balance of system $0.25-0.50/kW-hr Slide4:  Solar Energy Conversion Capture 100 nm-100 µm Slide5:  “Solar Paint” inexpensive processing, conformal layers d “Fooling “inexpensive particles into behaving as single crystals Slide6:  Interpenetrating Nanostructured Networks Slide7:  Ultra-high Efficiency Solar Cells multiple junctions hot carriers Storage: The Need to Produce Fuel:  Storage: The Need to Produce Fuel “Power Park Concept” Fuel Production Distribution Storage Slide9:  Solar Thermal + Electrolyzer System Solar-Powered Catalysts for Fuel Formation:  Solar-Powered Catalysts for Fuel Formation hydrogenase 2H+ + 2e-  H2 photosystem II Slide11:  Solar Land Area Requirements 3 TW Slide12:  Control of Materials Properties Through Nanoscience biological physical demonstrated efficiencies 10-18% in laboratory Self-assembly of complex structures Hydrogen from water and sunlight mechanical Nanoscience and Solar Energy:  Nanoscience and Solar Energy theory and modeling multi-node computer clusters density functional theory 10 000 atom assemblies manipulation of photons, electrons, and molecules quantum dot solar cells artificial photosynthesis natural photosynthesis nanostructured thermoelectrics nanoscale architectures top down lithography bottom up self-assembly multi-scale integration characterization scanning probes electrons, neutrons, x-rays smaller length and time scales Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy:  Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy The Sun is a singular solution to our future energy needs - capacity dwarfs fossil, nuclear, wind . . . - sunlight delivers more energy in one hour than the earth uses in one year - free of greenhouse gases and pollutants - secure from geo-political constraints Enormous gap between our tiny use of solar energy and its immense potential - Incremental advances in today’s technology will not bridge the gap - Conceptual breakthroughs are needed that come only from high risk-high payoff basic research Interdisciplinary research is required physics, chemistry, biology, materials, nanoscience Basic and applied science should couple seamlessly

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