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Published on January 26, 2009

Author: 3210651

Source: authorstream.com

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PRESENTATION OUTLINE : PRESENTATION OUTLINE Interpretation of stratigraphic sections is often based on the use of surfaces to subdivide the section – namely “Sequence Stratigraphy” If constrained by time & depositional setting the bounding surfaces of evaporites form distinct & widespread stratigraphic markers Updip supratidal sabkha evaporite cycles Downdip restricted playas & basin evaporites Unique & strong ties exist and constrain the timing of the accumulation linear belts of marine & lacustrian evaporites when arid climates & plate tectonic setting coincide Sequence Stratigraphic Interpretation : Sequence Stratigraphic Interpretation The subdivision of sedimentary section by time significant & widespread surfaces that record sharp changes in sedimentary character, erosion and/or non-deposition e.g.: Maximum flooding surfaces (time of maximum transgression) Transgressive surfaces (first significant flooding surface of a sequence) Sequence boundaries (significant erosional unconformiy produced by fall in sea level) Bounding Surfaces of Evaporites : Bounding Surfaces of Evaporites Distinct & widespread stratigraphic markers constrained by time & depositional setting: Updip supratidal sabkha evaporite cycles (upper bounding surface preserved in regressive coastlines matching sea level position of the late high stand system tract) Downdip restricted playas & basin evaporites (upper surface coincides with sea level position of the lowstand and following transgressive system tract) Updip Supratidal Sabkha Cycles : Updip Supratidal Sabkha Cycles Regressive coastlines match the sea level position of the late Highstand SystemTract Matrix rich Circumscribe depositional basin Interbedded facies include:- Up dip - Wadii sediments & aeolian sand Down dip - Cycles of shallow water carbonate Evaporites – sometimes signaled by solution breccias Examples: Modern of UAE Ancient of Permian Basin Slide 7: Western Coastal Margin of the United Arab Emirates Western Coast of the United Arab Emirates Slide 9: Earlier High Energy Beaches Supratidal Sabkha Evaporites High Intertidal Cyanobacterial Flats Intertidal Carbonate Flats Slide 10: Upper Intertidal Cyanobacteria Mats Diapiric Anhydrite After Gypsum Ptygmatic Anhydrite & Storm Washover Slide 11: Deflation Surface of Aeolian Carbonate Slide 13: Basin Margin Carbonates Sabkha Sediments Slide 14: Sabkha of the “Guadalupian” Permian Seven Rivers Formation, of the Seven Rivers Embayment, New Mexico. Supratidal Gypsum Windblown & Fluvial Silts Upper Tidal Flat Dolomite Slide 15: Collapse Breccia in the Seven Rivers Formation Dark Canyon, New Mexico. Collapse after Evaporites Upper Tidal Flat Dolomites Slide 16: Upper tidal flat dolomites Basinal evaporites Restricted Playas & Basin Evaporites : Restricted Playas & Basin Evaporites Match sea level of Lowstand and Transgressive System Tract Matrix poor Deeper parts of the isolated evaporite basin Extensive bodies Thin interbedded fabric reflects seasonal evaporative cycles of circum basin climate Dead Sea : Dead Sea Slide 21: Dark layers are Dolomite Light layers are Gypsum Slide 23: Hierarchical classification of climate drivers, with temporal scale of operation (vertical axis) and relative temperature change effected at each ordinal scale (horizontal axis).   [after Gehard et al (2001)] Evaporites as Time Markers Evaporites as Time Markers : Unique & strong ties exist & constrain the timing of evaporite accumulations. These linear belts of marine & lacustrian evaporites coincide with: Arid climates Plate tectonic setting Evaporites as Time Markers Origin of Evaporites : Rain shadow Width of continent High mountains Air System of the Arid Tropics Origin of Evaporites Lack of rainfall Where & when do thick evaporites accumulate? : Break up of continental plates Collision & compression of continental plates Generation of structural & depositional barriers Where & when do thick evaporites accumulate? Lacustrian and Marine settings adjacent to continental plate margins during:- Commonly within Air System of Arid Tropics Arid Climates Common in Earth History : Evaporites of Mesozoic to Tertiary of Middle East; Paleozoic & Mesozoic the USA, Europe & Middle East Arid Climates Common in Earth History Examples/Evidence: Arid Climates Common in Earth History : Salt Flat Evaporites Arid Coastline Evaporites Isolated Marine & Lacustrian Evaporite Basins Eolian sediments Arid Climates Common in Earth History Evidenced by:- Evaporite generation during break up of continental plates : Evaporite generation during break up of continental plates Isolated linear belts of interior drainage. Linear belts connected by restricted entrance to the sea. Regional drainage tends to flow away from break up margin Air system of the arid tropics Wide envelope of surrounding continents. Break Up Margin Evaporites : Break Up Margin Evaporites Mesozoic of Northern Atlantic Isolated linear belts of interior drainage. Linear belts connected by restricted entrance to the sea. Regional drainage tends to flow away from break up margin Air system of the arid tropics Wide envelope of surrounding continents Slide 31: Restricted Entrances To Sea Isolated linear Belt of interior drainage Regional Drainage Away From Margin Arid Tropics Air System Wide Envelope of surrounding continents Examples of Evaporites at Break Up Margins : Examples of Evaporites at Break Up Margins Mesozoic of Northern Gulf of Mexico Mesozoic of North & South Atlantic margins Mesozoic of Yemen rift belt Mesozoic & Tertiary of Eritrea East African Rift Dead Sea Continental Collision Evaporites : Continental Collision Evaporites Isolated linear belts of interior drainage. Linear belts connected by restricted entrance to the sea. Regional drainage tends to flow into basin Air system of the arid tropics Wide envelope of surrounding continents. Example of Evaporites at Collision Margin : Example of Evaporites at Collision Margin Current Arabian Gulf & underlying Late Mesozoic to Tertiary Isolated linear belts of interior drainage Linear belts connected by restricted entrance to sea Regional drainage tends to flow into basin Air system of the arid tropics Wide envelope of surrounding continents Slide 35: Restricted Entrance To Sea Isolated linear Belt of interior drainage Regional Drainage Into Basin Arid Tropics Air System Wide Envelope of surrounding continents Examples of Evaporites at Collision Margins : Examples of Evaporites at Collision Margins Current Arabian Gulf & underlying Late Mesozoic to Tertiary Silurian of Michigan Basin & Western New York State Devonian of Western Canada & NW USA Permian of New Mexico & West Texas Permian of Zechstein Basin Mesozoic to Tertiary of southern South America Tertiary of Mediterranean Mesozoic & Tertiary in final phases of Tethys Sea Evaporite Generation Behind Barriers : Evaporite Generation Behind Barriers Isolated linear belts of interior drainage. Linear belts connected by restricted entrance to the sea. Regional drainage tends to flow into basin Air system of the arid tropics Wide envelope of surrounding continents. Examples of Evaporites Behind Structural & Depositional Barriers : Examples of Evaporites Behind Structural & Depositional Barriers Permian Khuff of Saudi Arabia, UAE & Oman Upper Jurassic Hith Anhydrite of western UAE, eastern Saudi Arabia, southern Kuwait and western Iran Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic beneath Arabian Gulf Evaporites trapped by original Hercynian horst & block terrain at southern shore of Tethys Ocean. Punctuated by limited access to sea & repeated arid climatic events. Slide 39: Restricted Entrance To Sea Permian Khuff Saudi Arabia Oman & UAE Structural & Depositional Barrier over Hercynian Horst Blocks Arid Tropics Air System Wide Shadow from Adjacent Continents Slide 40: Restricted Entrance To Sea Upper Jurrassic Saudi Arabia Kuwait, Iran & UAE Depositional Barrier over Hercynian Horst Blocks Tropical Air System ! Wide Shadow from Adjacent Continents Examples of Evaporites Behind Structural & Depositional Barriers : Examples of Evaporites Behind Structural & Depositional Barriers Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic beneath Arabian Gulf Cretaceous Ferry Lake Anhydrite of Florida Evaporites trapped by structure and depositional barrier. Punctuated by limited access to sea & repeated arid climatic events. Conclusions : Conclusions Arid climates common through earth history Arid climates signaled by thick sections of evaporites in marine & lacustrian settings adjacent to margins of recently pulled apart continental plates &/or in compressional terrains of colliding margins Arid climates punctuate geologic column & so provide time markers Evaporites form stratigraphic marker horizons &“sequence stratigraphy” of a section & their bounding surfaces can be used to subdivide this, namely: Upper surfaces of updip supratidal sabkha evaporite cycles Upper surfaces of downdip restricted playas & basin evaporites

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