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Published on April 7, 2008

Author: Flemel

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Slide1:  TSUNAMI Just-in-Time Lecture By: Ali Ardalan, Ronald E. LaPorte, Eugene Shubnikov, Faina Linkov & Eric K. Noji for the Global Health Disaster Network Slide2:  What is the Disaster Supercourse? http://www.pitt.edu/~super1 Slide3:  What is a JIT lecture? http://www.pitt.edu/~super1 Slide4:  Lecture objectives: To provide the best possible information about the science of Tsunamis To learn how the science can help prepare us for primary & secondary prevention consequences of Tsunamis Slide5:  What is a Tsunami? (soo-NAH-mee) Slide6:  Tsunami or Harbor Wave A Japanese word represented by two characters: tsu & nami tsu means harbor & nami means wave Slide7:  History of Tsunami Ancient city of Knossos, the capital of the Minoan civilization Slide8:  Tsunami: Socio-economical Impacts Great loss of life Extensive property damage Paralyzed economy Import Export Manufacturing Tourism industry Possible HUGE Destruction! Slide9:  Tsunami Impacts: Socio-economical Factors Rapid growth & development of coastal areas Living people on or quite near the coast Foreign trade necessitates some maintain large fleets of ships & major port facilities Fishing industries Aqua cultural industries & canneries Slide10:  Risks Posed by Tsunamis Flooding Contamination of drinking water Fires from ruptured tanks or gas lines Loss of vital community infrastructure Slide11:  Tsunami Prediction: Understanding of the phenomenon Data collection on earthquake & sea level Data interpretation Impossible prediction of earthquakes generating tsunamis Slide12:  Tsunami Definition & Causes Slide13:  A tsunami can be generated by ANY disturbance that displaces a large water mass from its equilibrium position! Slide14:  Scientific term? Tsunami Seismic sea waves Tidal waves Slide15:  How is a tsunami different from a wind-generated wave? Slide16:  When an earthquake occurs in a source: Outward traveling of energy in all directions Outward radiation of waves in all directions & propagation across ocean basins Chilean Earthquake (1960) Sweeping tsunami across the Pacific to Japan Slide18:  A tsunami can compete with a jet airplane, traveling across the ocean in less than a day. When the ocean is 20000 feet (6100 m) deep, a tsunami travels at 550 miles/hr (890 km/hr). Slide19:  Unlike ocean-wide tsunamis caused by some earthquakes, tsunamis generated by non-seismic mechanisms usually dissipate quickly & rarely affect coastlines far from the source area. Slide20:  Determinant factors of the size of a tsunami at initial phase & along the coast Slide21:  Tsunamis generation: Initiation Split Amplification Run-up Slide23:  Tsunamis generation: Initiation Slide24:  Tsunamis generation: II. Split Slide25:  Tsunamis generation: III. Amplification Slide26:  Tsunamis generation: IV. Run-up Slide27:  Scientific terms: Run-up: Vertical height a wave reaches above a reference sea level as it washes ashore. Wave height: Vertical measurement of the wave before it reaches shore. Inundation distance: Horizontal distance a tsunami reaches landward from shoreline. Slide28:  Appearance of a tsunami when reaches the shore A rapidly rising or falling tide A series of waves A bore Slide29:  Run-up height: Tsunamis of distant origin: > 50 ft (15 m) Tsunami generated near the earthquake epicenter: > 100 ft (30 m) First wave may not be the largest in the series of waves. Slide30:  The flooding of an area can extend inland by 1000 feet (305 m) or more, covering large expanses of land with water & debris. Slide31:  Do tsunamis stop once on land? Energy reflection back Edge waves Slide32:  Complicated behavior of tsunami waves near the coast ! The first run-up of a tsunami is often not the largest. Do not return to a beach several hours after a tsunami hits. Slide33:  Tsunami can not be felt aboard ships nor can they be seen from the air in the open ocean. Slide34:  Why are tsunami so destructive? Slide35:  Learn about : International Tsunami Information Centre (ITIC) International Tsunami Warning System (ITWS) Slide36:  Mandate Functions Research and Data Collection Responsibilities Visiting Scientists Program Education, Preparedness & Disaster Reduction http://www.prh.noaa.gov/itic/ Slide37:  What is the International Tsunami Warning System (ITWS)? Seismic station Slide38:  What is the International Tsunami Warning System (ITWS)? Tide station Slide39:  International Tsunami Warning System (ITWS) ITWS includes 31 seismic stations & > 60 tide stations The stations have ability to transmit their data immediately & in real time to the headquarters at PTWC in Hawaii. Slide40:  How does the International Tsunami Warning System Work? Slide41:  Tsunami WARNING & Tsunami WATCH Slide42:  Dissemination of Watches & Warnings by ITIC When Earthquake is Strong Enough to Cause a Tsunami !! Monitoring the tide gauges near the epicenter Watch bulletins for all earthquake ≥ 7 in the Aleutian Islands & ≥ 7.5 elsewhere in the Pacific Watching cancellation: Negligible tsunami or no tsunami Watching Warning if a tsunami threat Slide43:  Capabilities & Limitations of the International Tsunami Warning System (ITWS) Slide44:  No Tsunami Warning Issued at 26 Dec 2004 Disaster !! No Tsunami Warning System exists for the Indian Ocean !! Slide45:  Be Prepared for Tsunamis & Protect Yourself Slide46:  Similar Tsunamis, Similar Strategies for Survival Slide47:  What you must do! Tsunami is coming! Slide48:  What you must do, If you are on a boat! Tsunami is coming!

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