Published on March 10, 2014
The Challenge of Organizational Communication Decision Making Process Conflict Management Processes Organizational Change and Leadership Processes Processes of Emotion in the Workplace
The Challenge of Organizational Communication
Our COMPLICATED World
Decision – Making Processes DECISION – MAKING is one of the most critical activities in any organization. Nutt (1999) concluded that half of all the decisions made in the organizations failed.
Approaches to Decision – Making Process APPROACHES Classical Human Relations HOW DECISION – MAKING WOULD BE CONSIDERED Decision making is seen as a RATIONAL AND LOGICAL PROCESS. Emphasis is placed on procedures through which decision makers can reach an optimal solution as efficiently as possible. Participation in the decision making process is seen as an avenue for the SATISFACTION of worker’s higherorder needs. Satisfied workers will then be more productive
Approaches to Decision – Making Process APPROACHES Human Resources Systems HOW DECISION – MAKING WOULD BE CONSIDERED Participation in the decision making process is seen as an avenue for eliciting valuable information from employees and for ensuring effective implementation of organizational decision. Decision making is seen as a complex process involving multiple and varied stages. Both information and organizational members are seen as part of KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS.
Approaches to Decision – Making Process APPROACHES Cultural Critical HOW DECISION – MAKING WOULD BE CONSIDERED Decision making is seen as a set of practices that reflects and constitutes organizational values and assumptions. Conflicts in decision making are seen as possible indications of different values within organizational subcultures. Decision making is seen as a process through which management can exert control over employees. When employees participate in decision making, they accept the decision premises of the organization and contribute to hegemonic relationships in the organization
Conflict Management Processes According to Putnam and Poole (1987) “ the interaction of interdependent people who perceive opposition of goals, aims, and values, and who see the other party as potentially interfering with the realization of these goals.”
THREE I’s OF CONFLICT: THREE I’s OF CONFLICT: involve many different issues in the Organization Setting When incompatibility is not a sufficient condition Involves the expression of incompatibility
Levels of Organizational Conflict t io n aniza rg ter-O nflict In Co In Interpersonal Level of Conflict al fl p Co n u tergro ict
Phases of Organizational Conflict Latent Conflict Latent Conflict Perceived Conflict Perceived Conflict Felt Conflict Felt Conflict Manifest Conflict Manifest Conflict Conflict aftermath Conflict aftermath
Conflict Management Styles HIGH COMPETITION CONCERN FOR SELF LOW COLLABORATION COMPROMISE AVIODANCE LOW CONCERN FOR OTHERS ACCOMODATION HIGH
Criticisms of the Conflict Styles Approach 1. The conflict styles approach treats the individual communicator as the sole benchmaker for conceptualizing conflict and for determining how it will develop. 2. The conflict styles approach relies too narrowly on two – dimensional theoretical models that may not be internally congruent, exhaustive, or representative of conflict-handling modes in Organizations.
Criticisms of the Conflict Styles Approach 3. The conflict styles approach limits communication to verbal behaviors, especially those that are rational and uncomplicated, mutually exclusive across different styles, and static and unchanging. 4. The conflict styles approach treats the organization as being in the distant background rather than in the center stage of conflict activity.
Bargaining and Negotiation “Bargaining constitutes a unique form of conflict management in that participants negotiate mutually shared rules and then cooperate within these rules to gain a competitive advantage over their opponents. Bargaining, then, differs from other forms of conflict in its emphasis on proposal exchanges as a basis for reaching a joint settlement in cooperative – competitive situation.” - Putman and Poole (1987)
Comparison between Distributive and Integrative Bargaining Distributive Bargaining Integrative Bargaining GOALS Maximize individual gains and maximize losses Maximize joint goals ISSUES Fixed – sum issues with limited resources Variable –sum issues shaped by overlapping positions OUTCOMES Compromises, tradeoffs, and win-lose results Creative solutions not attributable to specific concessions COMMUNICATION S Information seeking, withholding data, and deception in disclosure Open sharing of information, accurate disclosure of needs and objectives
Third – Party Resolution A third party is often relied on to help resolve conflicts. This “third party” might be a friend, co-worker who is brought in to help settle the conflict or to provide support for one of the parties. - Volkema, Bergman &Farquhar
Factors Influencing the Conflict Management Process Personal Factors - personalities, gender preferences Relational Factors - powers, hierarchical positions Cultural Factors - aspect of organization, national and ethic cultures
Organizational Change and Leadership Processes MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE: Organizational life cycle (Kimberly & Miles, 1980) Evolution of Organizational Population (Hannan and Freeman, 1989) Planned Change (Connor and Lake, 1994)
Reactions to Organizational Change Problems Identified in Change Process are as follows: – Lack of management support – Top managers forcing change – Inconsistent action by key managers – Unrealistic expectations – Lack of meaningful participation – Poor communication – Purpose of program was not clear – Responsibility for change not properly identified
Communication in the Change Process Managerial Strategies for Communicating about Change: – Spray and Pray – Tell and Sell – Underscore and Explore – Identity and Reply – Withhold and Uphold
“Unplanned” Change : Organizational Crisis Seeger, Sellnow, and Ulmer (2003) describe organizational crisis as evolving in three stages: Precrisis Crisis Postcrisis
Organizational Leadership Models of Leadership • Contingency Theory • Transformational leadership model
Communication and Leadership The role of communication in the leadership process can be looked at in several different ways. It is important, for example, to look at what is said—the content of communication. Of course, the appropriate content of communication will vary from situation to situation, but research does give us some ideas about what effective leaders say.
PROCESSES OF EMOTION IN THE WORKPLACE • Emotion in the Workplace Most models of organizational life see the workplace as a setting governed by logic and rationality.
Emotion as part of the Job Several generalizations can be forwarded about the body of work on emotional labor: – Most research considers frontline service workers in organizations that sanction (and pay for) emotion in the service of customers. Thus, emotional labor is seen as a way to increase the success—and profits —of the organization. – Most research considers emotion that is explicitly controlled through training and employee manuals.
Several generalizations can be forwarded about the body of work on emotional labor: – Most research considers emotional displays that are created through deep acting or surface acting—in other words, emotional displays that are in some way not authentic expressions of current or enduring emotion. – When workers enact emotional labor, they are very aware that they are acting for the purpose of managerial and (sometimes) personal profit (Miller, Considine & Garner, 2007).
Emotion as Part of Workplace Relationship Waldron (2000) argued that there are several aspects of work relationships that create potential for intense emotion in Organizations. These include: • The tension between the public and private in work relationship • Relational networks and emotional “buzzing” • Conflicting allegiances • Emotional rights and obligations at work
Emotion Rules and Emotional Intelligence Emotional Display Rule: • • • • • Express emotions in a professional way Express emotions to improve situation Express emotions to the right people Express emotions to help individuals Do not manage emotions for personal benefit to the detriment of others • The express of certain emotions is always inappropriate
Stress, Burnout and Social Support in the Workplace
Communication as a Cause of Burnout Model of Empathy, Communication and Burnout
Coping with Burnout Individual and Organizational Coping Strategies • Problem centered coping • Appraisal centered coping • Emotion centered coping
Coping with Burnout Communicative Coping: Participation in Decision Making Communicative Coping: Social Support Three major function of Social Support: • Emotional Support • Informational Support • Instrumental Support Three common supports from individuals: • Support from Supervisor • Support from co-worker • Support from friends and family
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