Published on March 3, 2014
Perception ASSIGNMENT 2 Perception Organization Behavior Dr. D. Gopala Krishna TITLE: A Study on Pragmatic Approaches and Quality Initiatives for Enhancing Teachers’ Caliber in Post Graduate Institutes offering MBA Programme under Bangalore University Under the Guidance of Dr. T.V. Raju Director, RV Institute of Management, Bangalore CANARA BANK SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES BANGALORE UNIVERSITY SUBMITTED BY Shivananda R Koteshwar PhD Research Scholar, 2013, REG# 350051 Shivananda R Koteshwar, PhD Research Scholar, Bangalore University
Perception 1. Define Perception Perception is a process by which individual organize and interpret their sensory impressions (touch, sight, taste, smell and sound) in order to give meaning to their environment. Sometimes what one perceives can be completely different from objective reality. Perceptions lead to conditioning of mind. E.g.: What is seen is influenced by perception, environment and object Factors in the perceiver: Attitudes, Motives, Interests, Experience, Expectations Factors in the target: Novelty, Motion, Sounds, Size, Background, Proximity, Similarity Factors in the situation: Time, Work setting, Social setting 2. Explain perception process with a model As per psychology, the process of perception is Receiving, Selecting, Organizing, Interpreting, Checking and Reacting to stimuli. The perceiver and the situation influence these processes. Receiving: The perception process starts with the reception of stimuli. The stimuli are received from the various sources. Through the five organs, we see things/objects, hear sounds, smell, taste and touch things. In this way, the reception of stimuli is a Shivananda R Koteshwar, PhD Research Scholar, Bangalore University
Perception physiological aspect of perception process. Stimuli May be external and also internal. External – sound, video etc and Internal –digestive system, Secretion of hormones etc Selection: People, in their everyday life cannot assimilate all what they observe or receive from the environment at a time. Hence, they select some stimuli for further processing to attach meaning to them while the rest is screened out. Any characteristic that makes a person, object or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived. As it’s impossible for us to assimilate everything we see-only certain stimuli can be taken in. Because we cannot observe everything going on about/around us, we engage in selection perception. The process of filtering information received by our senses is called selecting stimuli or selective attention. Selection of stimuli is not made at random, but depending on the two types of factors, namely external factors and internal factors (1) External Factors: The external factors influencing selection are nature, location, intensity, size, contrast, repetition, motion, novelty and familiarity. (2) Internal Factors: Internal factors influencing selection of stimuli include learning, psychological needs, age differences, interests, ambivalence, and paranoid perception. Organizing: Having selected stimuli or data, these need to be organized in some form so as to assign some meaning to them. Thus, organizing the bits of information into a meaningful whole is called “organization”. There are three ways by which the selected data i.e., inputs are organized. These are (1) Grouping, (2) Closure (3) Simplification Interpreting: The data collected and organized remain meaningless for the perceiver till these are assigned meanings. Assigning meanings to data is called ‘interpretation’. The process includes Perceptual Set, Attribution, Stereotyping, Halo Effect, Perceptual Context, Perceptual defense, implicit personality theory and projection. Checking: The interpreted data next goes through the process of checking. Checking can be done either by introspection or by checking about the interpretation with the others. Reacting: Action is the last phase in the perceptual process. The action may be positive or negative depending upon favorable perception held by the perceiver. 3. What factors influence the selection process? Discuss with examples People, in their everyday life cannot assimilate all what they observe or receive from the environment at a time. Hence, they select some stimuli for further processing to attach meaning to them while the rest is screened out. Any characteristic that makes a person, object or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived. As it’s impossible for us to assimilate everything we see-only certain stimuli can be taken in. Because we cannot observe everything going on about/around us, we engage in selection perception. The process of filtering information received by our senses is called selecting stimuli or selective attention. Shivananda R Koteshwar, PhD Research Scholar, Bangalore University
Perception Selection of stimuli is not made at random, but depending on the two types of factors, namely external factors and internal factors a. External Factors: The external factors influencing selection are nature, location, intensity, size, contrast, repetition, motion, novelty and familiarity b. Internal Factors: Internal factors influencing selection of stimuli include learning, psychological needs, age differences, interests, ambivalence, and paranoid perception. Nature: Visual or Audio: visual information is more easily remembered overall and hence better selected because vision, has more reference points in the memory. E.g.: For recognition, people have an amazing ability to store complex visual information and to recognize and discriminate old from new pictures at retention intervals of days. Location: Based on what stimuli you get where the object is located leads to higher acceptance. E.g.: A billboard in Bangalore will carry much higher billboard rental rates than the suburbs as number of consumers who will have an opportunity to see the billboard will be much more Intensity: Higher intensity are perceived more than the objects with low intensity E.g.: A loud noise, strong odor or bright light or bright colors will be more readily perceived than soft sound, weak odor or dim light. It is because of this advantage that advertisers employ intensity to draw the consumers' attention. Size: The size of the object or stimulus has a greater impact on the perception process because the size influences attention and recognition in a more effective manner. E.g.: A Great Dane dog which is tall attracts the attention. At the same time a pocket dog also attracts attention because of its size. However, generally the larger the object the more likely it will be perceived. Contrast: This states that the external stimuli that stand out against the background or which people are not expecting. Contrast effect can distort perceptions. We don’t evaluate a person in isolation. Our reaction to one person is influenced by other persons we have already encountered. E.g.: In the interview situation when an interviewer sees a pool of job applicants, distortions in any given candidate’s evaluation can occur as a result of his/her place in the interview schedule. A candidate is likely to receive a more favorable evaluation if preceded by mediocre Shivananda R Koteshwar, PhD Research Scholar, Bangalore University
Perception applicants and a less favorable evaluation if preceded by strong applicant. Repetition: Repeated stimuli have more impact on performances than a single statement. Repetition has the advantage of being attention catching E.g.: Repetition is a frequently employed advertising tactic. It is not uncommon to see an ad or a shortened version of it repeated within the context of a single television program. The reason for repeating an ad maybe to in-crease its persuasive impact, to increase the recall of the information contained in it, or to enhance brand name recall. Motion: The factor of motion implies that the individuals attend to changing objects in their field of vision than to static objects E.g.: Advertisers involve signs, which include moving objects in their campaigns. At an unconscious level the animals in the jungles make use of this principle. A tiger lying in wait is motionless until his prey is nearer him and then jumps at an appropriate moment Novelty & Familiarity: A novel object in the familiar situation or a familiar object in a novel situation tends to attract attention. E.g.: a white person or a black person in India catches attention faster. Job rotation is another example of this principle. Recent research indicates that job rotation not only increased attention but also employees' acquisition of new skills. Learning: People tend to perceive what they want to perceive Usually people will miss the double “THE” in the above sentence. We tend to see what we want to see Psychological Needs: Habits die-hard and therefore individuals perceive objects, situations and conditions differently according to their habits E.g.: A Hindu will bow and do Namaskar when he sees a temple while walking on road, because of his well-established habit. These are several instances in life settings where individuals tend to react with the right response to the wrong signals. Thus a retired soldier may throw himself on the ground when he hears a sudden burst of car tire. Shivananda R Koteshwar, PhD Research Scholar, Bangalore University
Perception Age differences: Age has a direct influence on the perception process. The age of the individual has an impact on the perception process E.g.: In China, if you have an older colleague working with you on the team, as per the culture, the older colleague will always be given an opportunity to present his point of view and he/she will be given that stature only based on their age and their experience that comes with age Ambivalence: Person having mixed feelings about the situation affects the selection process E.g.: A survey was conducted across people of different political parties, religions, races, and a host of other demographic categories feel about a government role in guaranteeing heath insurance and the Affordable Care Act. The results may be troubling the democrats. The survey results declared that 37% of respondents felt that individuals should take responsibility of their own insurance, while 40% of them felt that government should take the responsibility of the insurance. This ambivalence has an effect on the government to decide the right policy in-line with people’s expectations. Paranoid Perception: The person is so selective that he can find little common ground for communication with others i.e. emotionally disturbed person perceptual field differs from that of most other persons. E.g.: A person with a working model of anxious/preoccupied attachment feels that in order to get close to someone and have their needs met; they need to be with the partner all the time and get reassurance. To support this perception of reality, they choose someone who is isolated and hard to connect with. The person with a working model of dismissive/avoidant attachment has the tendency to be distant, because their model is that the way to get your needs met is to act like you don’t have any. He or she then chooses someone who is more possessive or overly demanding of attention. In a sense, they set themselves up by finding partners that confirm their models. Shivananda R Koteshwar, PhD Research Scholar, Bangalore University
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